Cases reported "Cryptosporidiosis"

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1/133. Sclerosing cholangitis associated to cryptosporidiosis in liver-transplanted children.

    Three children of a series of 461 pediatric liver transplant recipients developed diffuse cholangitis associated with intestinal cryptosporidium carriage. All three received immunosuppression consisting of tacrolimus and prednisone. Cryprosporidium carriage was treated with paramomycin, while immunosuppression was decreased according to graft tolerance. No other infectious pathogens were found, and no vascular problems were detected. Bile duct anastomosis was reoperated in all three, but biliary cirrhosis developed in one patient, requiring retransplantation. All three patients are alive and well, and free of intestinal parasites on follow-up. CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium intestinal infection may play a role in some cases of otherwise unexplained cholangiopathies in pediatric liver transplant recipients. This may lead to significant morbidity, including need for retransplantation. ( info)

2/133. Efficacy of treatment with paromomycin, azithromycin, and nitazoxanide in a patient with disseminated cryptosporidiosis.

    A 24-year-old hiv-positive heterosexual woman with disseminated cryptosporidiosis was monitored from January 1998 to May 1999. During this period, consecutive stool, sputum, and bile examinations showed the constant presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Although the patient was repeatedly treated with oral paromomycin and azithromycin and, finally, nitazoxanide, her condition continued to deteriorate. In order to monitor the in vitro susceptibility of the parasite, specimens from various sites were collected periodically. When the first clinical isolate was tested, the antimicrobial agents used (azithromycin at a concentration of 8 mg/l, paromomycin at of 1 mg/ml, and nitazoxanide at 10 mg/l) produced a decrease in parasite counts of 26.5%, 63.4%, and 67.2%, respectively. Subsequent isolates of cryptosporidium parvum showed similar susceptibilities. This case demonstrates that failure of clinical treatment corresponded to inadequate growth inhibition of the parasite in vitro. ( info)

3/133. Cryptosporidial infections after solid organ transplantation in children.

    The diagnosis and treatment of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in solid organ transplant recipients is often a challenge because of the variety of infectious and non-infectious causes. The morbidity associated with this clinical condition is of particular significance in the pediatric population where malnutrition may lead to poor growth and development. Rarely, Cryptosporidium has been identified as the cause of clinically significant diarrhea in pediatric solid organ transplant patients. A retrospective review identified cases of cryptosporidiosis among the 1160 non-renal, abdominal organ transplant recipients cared for at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh between 1981 and June 1998. Four cases of clinically significant diarrhea were identified in three liver transplant recipients and one small bowel transplant recipient. endoscopy and biopsy with histologic confirmation diagnosed three cases; ova and parasitic examination of stool specimens identified the fourth case. Therapy varied among the patients depending on when they had been diagnosed as, over the years, different and newer agents have been indicated for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis. All four patients resolved their infections. Hence, endoscopy and biopsy is recommended for pediatric transplant patients who present with chronic diarrhea of unknown etiology. The patients who may be at a higher risk for cryptosporidial infections include those with an increased immunosuppressive state (i.e. pre-existing immunodeficiency, malignancy, re-transplantation, and those receiving higher doses of immunosuppressive therapy). While cryptosporidiosis is a non-lethal complication, it allows the clinician to gain further insight into the degree of immunosuppression of their patient. ( info)

4/133. cytomegalovirus and Cryptosporidium infections in AIDS: a necropsy study.

    A case of coinfection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Cryptosporidium in an AIDS patient is reported. Chronic diarrhea was the presenting symptom. Etiologic agents were diagnosed only at postmortem evaluation. CMV intranuclear inclusions were seen in the terminal ileum, colon and vermiform appendix. Cryptosporidium oocysts were also present in the intestinal brush border of the colon. Improvement of diagnostic procedures such as colonic biopsy and the use of appropriate staining procedure for AIDS patients with diarrhea can help identify the cause of illness. ( info)

5/133. Detection of the cryptosporidium parvum "human" genotype in a dugong (dugong dugon).

    The Cryptosporidium "human" genotype was identified in a paraffin-embedded tissue section from a dugong (dugong dugon) by 2 independent laboratories. dna sequencing and polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 18S ribosomal rna gene and the acetyl CoA synthethase gene clearly identified the genotype as that of the Cryptosporidium variant that infects humans. This is the first report of the human Cryptosporidium genotype in a nonprimate host. ( info)

6/133. Rapid increase of mucosal CD4 T cells followed by clearance of intestinal cryptosporidiosis in an AIDS patient receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and leads to an increase in circulating CD4 T lymphocytes, but its effects on other immune compartments such as the intestinal mucosa are not well understood. We describe a severely immunodeficient hiv-infected patient with intractable watery diarrhea and weight loss caused by infection with cryptosporidium parvum in whom we studied virologic and immunologic changes in both peripheral blood and the intestinal mucosa after initiating HAART. Mucosal biopsies were performed by rectoscopy before and at several time points after HAART was begun. nucleic acids were extracted from rectal biopsy specimens and blood samples, and hiv rna was measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. lymphocytes were isolated from rectal biopsy specimens after mechanical disaggregation, and circulating and mucosal CD4 T cells were determined by flow cytometry. HAART led to clinical recovery and eradication of cryptosporidiosis. In both blood and mucosa, hiv rna decreased below the limit of detection and CD4 T cells increased. Mucosal CD4 T cells increased much faster and to much higher levels than circulating CD4 T cells. Our findings show a rapid repopulation of the intestinal mucosa with CD4 T cells after initiation of HAART that can effectively restore mucosal immunity, leading to eradication of opportunistic pathogens. ( info)

7/133. Gastric cryptosporidiosis as a clue for the diagnosis of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    cryptosporidium parvum has been detected with increasing frequency in the gastrointestinal tract, but involvement of the stomach is rarely reported. Whenever found in the histologic examination of the gastrointestinal mucosa, it should raise the suspicion of an immunocompromised host. We report a case of Cryptosporidium-associated erosive gastritis in a 64-year-old woman, who was found later to have the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Gastroduodenoendoscopy and biopsy of the gastric mucosa played an invaluable role in the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis and to disclose the underlying immunodeficiency state. ( info)

8/133. A report case of cyclospora and Cryptosporidium mixed infection in a hiv-negative child in thailand.

    The first case of cyclosporosis in a non hiv-infected child in thailand, co-infected with Cryptosporidium, was reported. The patient was a 3 year-old malnourished orphan who presented with fever, abdominal distension and relapsing diarrhea. There was no leukocyte in her stool, however, numerous cyclospora and Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified by modified acid-fast staining. The illness was cured by co-trimoxazole and fluid therapy. More coccidial infections in thailand may be detected if modified acid-fast staining is routinely performed. ( info)

9/133. diarrhea and gallbladder hydrops in an immunocompetent child with Cryptosporidium infection.

    We report a case of an immunocompetent child who developed gallbladder hydrops during a concurrent diarrheal illness caused by cryptosporidium parvum. Hepatobiliary disease and chronic cryptosporidial diarrhea is an accepted association in adults with hiv infection but has only once previously been reported in a child, also with hiv. ( info)

10/133. Human infection with Cryptosporidium felis: case report and literature review.

    An infection with Cryptosporidium felis in an hiv-positive man from italy was successfully treated with paromomycin, despite the patient's having a CD4 cell count of 31/mL. Fourteen cases of human infection with C. felis have been described, all in the past 3 years, emphasizing the public health importance of Cryptosporidium parasites other than C. parvum. ( info)
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