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1/4. Case report: reduction of low back pain in a professional golfer.

    Previous research agrees that the majority of injuries that affect male golfers are located in the lower back and that they are related to improper swing mechanics and/or the repetitive nature of the swing. This study describes the trunk motion and paraspinal muscle activity during the swing of a golfer with related low back pain (LBP) and assesses the effect of a 3-month period of muscle conditioning and coaching on these variables. motion of the trunk was measured using three-dimensional video analysis and electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from the same six sites of the erector spinae at the start and end of the 3-month period. At the end of the period, the golfer was able to play and practice without LBP. Coaching resulted in an increase in the range of hip turn and a decrease in the amount of shoulder turn, which occurred during the swing. In addition, a reduction in the amount of trunk flexion/lateral flexion during the downswing occurred in conjunction with less activity in the left erector spinae. These changes may serve to reduce the torsional and compressive loads acting on the thoracic and lumbar spine, which in turn may have contributed to the cessation of the LBP and would reduce the risk of reoccurrence in the future. In conclusion, further research with more subjects would now be warranted in order to test the findings of this program for the prevention of low back in golfers as piloted in this case report.
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2/4. Arthroscopic repair of dorsal radiocarpal ligament tears.

    Various authors have highlighted the importance of the dorsal radiocarpal (DRC) ligament in normal carpal kinematics. It is a secondary stabilizer of the lunate and has a role in midcarpal stability. Disruption of the DRC ligament has been implicated in the development of static VISI and DISI deformities, prompting some authors to perform an open reattachment of the dorsal capsule if there is an associated scapholunate ligament tear. The management of these tears is still evolving. The contribution of a DRC ligament tear to the development of wrist pain remains uncertain when combined with additional wrist pathology. An isolated DRC ligament tear was responsible for chronic dorsal wrist pain in 2 patients. A previously undescribed inside-out repair method of the DRC ligament using a volar wrist portal was successful in relieving the pain. Recognition of this condition and further research into treatment methods is needed.
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3/4. Effusion of the hips in a patient with tetraplegia.

    BACKGROUND: patients with spinal cord injury are at risk for knee effusion, most likely as a result of repetitive microtrauma. patients with paralysis are susceptible to effusions of the hip similar to those seen in documented cases regarding the knee. The etiology is likely similar and is related to repetitive microtrauma, such as that experienced when aggressive range of motion exercises are applied. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Acute rehabilitation department of a spinal cord injury center. FINDINGS: A 19-year-old man with a complete cervical spinal cord injury presented to acute rehabilitation on postinjury day 25 with a C6 American Spinal Injury association classification A injury, complete. He was found to have bilateral hip effusions. Joint aspiration yielded a right sterile hydroarthrosis and a left sterile hemarthrosis. During his rehabilitation stay, the patient developed one mildly elevated alkaline phosphatase level, but he showed no radiographic evidence of heterotopic ossification and maintained full passive range of motion of the hips. CONCLUSION: This case indicates that hip effusion may be a similar, less-common occurrence than knee effusion in patients with spinal cord injury. In this case, bilateral aseptic hip effusion was not associated with heterotopic ossification. More research is needed to determine the etiology and sequelae of this condition.
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4/4. Retro runner with ischial tuberosity enthesopathy.

    In reviewing the literature, no studies were found reporting the use of retro running on flat and hilly terrain, which elicited enthesopathy (stress reaction) at the ischial tuberosity. Therefore, this case study of an atypical enthesopathy condition warrants careful scrutiny in order to generate future research. This case study describes the clinical management of a female runner with bilateral patellofemoral pain who self-initiated a program of backward running and stationary bicycling after reading an article about retro running in a runners' magazine. She subsequently developed ischial tuberosity enthesopathy verified by scintigraphy (bone scan). Her symptoms gradually resolved with physical therapy intervention. Eventually, she was able to forward jog 2 miles on flat surfaces without complaint of pain but did not resume retro running. This case not only suggests the need for further research in retro running kinetics and kinematics but highlights the proactive role health professionals must assume in injury prevention.
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