Cases reported "Cyanosis"

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1/32. Left ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit in treatment of transposition of great arteries, restrictive ventricular septal defect, and acquired pulmonary atresia.

    Progressive cyanosis after banding of the pulmonary artery in infancy occurred in a child with transposition of the great arteries and a ventricular septal defect, and a Blalock-Taussig shunt operation had to be performed. At the time of correction a segment of pulmonary artery between the left ventricle and the band was found to be completely occluded so that continuity between the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery could not be restored. A Rastelli type of operation was not feasible as the ventricular septal defect was sited low in the muscular septum. Therefore, in addition to Mustard's operation, a Dacron conduit was inserted from the left ventricle to the main pulmonary artery to relieve the obstruction. Postoperative cardiac catheterization with angiocardiography indicated a satisfactory haemodynamic result. The patient remains well 11 months after the operation. This operation, a left ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit, may be used as an alternative procedure in patients with transposition of the great arteries, intact interventricular septum, and obstruction to the left ventricular outflow, if the obstruction cannot be adequately relieved.
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keywords = operative
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2/32. Right pulmonary artery-to-left atrium communication: a rare cause of systemic cyanosis.

    Direct communication between the right pulmonary artery and the left atrium is a rare congenital vascular malformation. The clinical diagnosis is difficult, and preoperative angiography is essential. We treated this anomaly successfully with surgery and the use of cardiopulmonary bypass in an 11-year-old boy. Surgery provides a complete cure for this anomaly.
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3/32. Rare venous connection causes severe cyanosis after the Fontan operation.

    We describe a rare case of cyanosis following the Fontan operation secondary to right-to-left shunting through a pulmonary vein connected to both the left atrium and the hepatic veins. This is a hazardous anomaly in a Fontan candidate and should be considered in those with unexpected postoperative desaturation.
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keywords = operative
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4/32. Perioperatively acquired methaemoglobinaemia in a preterm infant.

    Methaemoglobinaemia is an uncommon cause of neonatal cyanosis. A case that illustrates the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition is presented.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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5/32. Pathological effect of seizures on the hippocampus in cases with temporal lobe epilepsy caused by brain tumors.

    The cause of Ammon's horn sclerosis in temporal lobe epilepsy has not yet been clarified. In the present study, the pathological effect of epileptic seizures on the hippocampus was investigated in surgically treated patients with brain tumor-induced temporal lobe epilepsy. Tumors involving the hippocampus were identified as the foci of epilepsy in 13 patients (seven male and six female) and resected after epileptic discharges were found at the hippocampus on intraoperative electrocorticogram. The mean age at operation was 29.8 /- 11.5 years and the mean age of seizure onset was 19.9 /- 10.8 years. Because only three of the 13 patients who underwent temporal lobectomy for brain tumors involving the hippocampus had Ammon's horn sclerosis pathologically, it was concluded that it was very unlikely that the Ammon's horn sclerosis was produced by the epileptic seizures. Two of the three patients with pathological signs of Ammon's horn sclerosis had episodes of coma, covulsion, high fever and cyanosis in their past histories that might have portended the appearance of Ammon's horn sclerosis later in their lives.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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6/32. Ebstein's anomaly: one and a half ventricular repair.

    patients with Ebstein's anomaly can present after childhood or adolescence with cyanosis, arrhythmias, severe right ventricular dysfunction and frequently with left ventricular dysfunction secondary to the prolonged cyanosis and to the right ventricular interference. At this point conventional repair is accompanied by elevated mortality and morbidity and poor functional results. We report our experience with three patients (8, 16 and 35 years of age) with Ebstein's anomaly, very dilated right atrium, severe tricuspid valve regurgitation (4/4), bi-directional shunt through an atrial septal defect and reduced left ventricular function (mean ejection fraction = 58%, mean shortening fraction = 25%). All underwent one and a half ventricular repair consisting of closure of the atrial septal defect, tricuspid repair with reduction of the atrialised portion of the right ventricle and end-to-side anastomosis of the superior vena cava to the right pulmonary artery. All patients survived, with a mean follow-up of 33 months. In all there was complete regression of the cyanosis and of the signs of heart failure. Postoperative echocardiography showed reduced degree of tricuspid regurgitation (2/4) and improvement of the left ventricular function (mean ejection fraction = 77%, mean shortening fraction = 40%). In patients with Ebstein's anomaly referred late for surgery with severely compromised right ventricular function or even with reduced biventricular function, the presence of a relatively hypoplastic and/or malfunctioning right ventricular chamber inadequate to sustain the entire systemic venous return but capable of managing part of the systemic venous return, permits a one and a half ventricular repair with good functional results.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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7/32. Multidisciplinary Conferences in gastroenterology. Cardiovascular effects of severe liver disease.

    This is the definitive review of the cardiovascular effects of liver disease. Physiologic and pathologic studies accomplished primarily in the 1950s and 1960s have been applied to a case of a 16-year-old boy with cirrhosis of the liver who presented with weakness, dyspnea, cyanosis, and clubbing. The probable mechanisms for his signs and symptoms are discussed in detail. The cause for the hyperkinetic circulation is unknown. By exclusion, the cyanosis is attributed to intrapulmonary shunting. Portapulmonary shunts are not quantitatively important. The suitability of the terms micronodular and macronodular cirrhosis is highlighted. Indications for various types of surgical portal shunts are discussed. The value of preoperative hemodynamic measurements of the portal circulation to the individual patient is debated. A liver transplant is considered in this case with no promising medical therapy and a very poor prognosis. The renal disease manifested by red cell casts in the urine is thought to be caused by an immunologic reaction in the kidney somehow related to his liver disease. This discussion is led by Dr. Jack Myers, but his opinions are correlated with those of a pathologist, radiologist, surgeon, and gastroenterologist. It is a clinical tour de force, although not all the predictions are confirmed by laboratory studies such as this patient's hepatic wedge pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, and cardiac fluoroscopy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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8/32. Respiratory symptoms secondary to aortopulmonary collateral vessels in tetralogy of Fallot absent pulmonary valve syndrome.

    Hemodynamically significant systemic-to-pulmonary artery collaterals may represent an underappreciated cause of cardiorespiratory compromise in tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve (TOF/APV). We retrospectively reviewed the angiographic, magnetic resonance imaging, operative, and autopsy reports of the 50 patients with TOF/APV managed at our institution in the past 10 years and demonstrated that at least 7 of 50 patients (14%) had significant aortopulmonary collaterals.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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9/32. methemoglobinemia: an unusual cause of postoperative cyanosis.

    methemoglobinemia, although rare, must be considered in surgical patients presenting with acute respiratory distress and cyanosis. We report two cases of methemoglobinemia in patients undergoing aortic reconstruction. The first patient developed methemoglobinemia while on a nitroglycerin infusion, and the second after receiving benzocaine spray before intubation. Both patients were treated with methylene blue and ascorbic acid, with resolution of their hypoxia and cyanosis. The pathophysiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of methemoglobinemia are reviewed.
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ranking = 4
keywords = operative
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10/32. Surgical treatment for isolated hypoplasia of the right ventricle.

    Four patients with isolated hypoplasia of the right ventricle who underwent intracardiac repair are described. An atrial septal defect (ASD) was successfully closed in 3 patients with mild hypoplasia of the right ventricle. The remaining patients underwent ASD closure and right atrium-to-pulmonary artery connection with a conduit with a bovine pericardial valve because of severe hypoplasia of the right ventricle and tricuspid valve. Postoperative angiocardiogram in the last patient demonstrated two-channel pathways from the right atrium to the pulmonary artery via both the right ventricle and external conduit. At long-term follow-up studies, 3 patients had developed arrhythmias and/or sinus node dysfunction, and one had died, probably because of arrhythmia, 13 years postoperatively. The right ventricular ejection fractions were below normal levels at 11 and 12 years postoperatively in 2 patients who underwent closure of ASD. It was concluded that the mild form of hypoplasia of the right ventricle should be surgically corrected by ASD closure, while right atrium-to-pulmonary artery connection or Fontan's operation should be chosen for cases of severe hypoplasia. Arrhythmias and hypofunction of the right ventricle are long-term problems after intracardiac repair of this anomaly.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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