Cases reported "Cystic Fibrosis"

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1/15. hip fracture and bone histomorphometry in a young adult with cystic fibrosis.

    A 25-yr-old male with cystic fibrosis sustained a fragility fracture of the left femoral neck, which required surgical correction. He had several risk factors for the development of low bone density and despite treatment with an oral bisphosphonate, his bone mineral density reduced further. The patient died 2 yrs after sustaining the fracture. Bone specimens obtained at post mortem demonstrated severe cortical and trabecular osteopenia, but the histological features were not typical of osteoporosis or osteomalacia. osteoporosis is thought to be a common complication of cystic fibrosis. The novel histomorphometric appearances reported here suggest that the bone disease of cystic fibrosis may be more complex and possibly unique. Labelled bone biopsies are required to clarify the bone defect leading to low bone density in cystic fibrosis patients so that appropriate therapeutic strategies can be developed.
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2/15. Pamidronate results in symptom control of hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy in cystic fibrosis.

    Hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy (HPOA) may complicate the advanced lung disease that is associated with cystic fibrosis, resulting in severe joint pain and early-morning stiffness. Symptoms are usually controlled with the administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy, and, on occasions, oral corticosteroids. This report describes a case of refractory HPOA with complete remission following the administration of IV pamidronate, which is a potent inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resorption. Symptom relief resulted for up to 3 months, but repeated courses of pamidronate have been required to maintain symptom control.
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3/15. A Japanese adult case of cystic fibrosis causing bone demineralization.

    cystic fibrosis is an inherited, multisystem disorder characterized by an abnormality in exocrine gland function. It leads to chronic pulmonary disease in most cases and pancreatic insufficiency in 85 percent of patients. Although this disease is not uncommon in Caucasians, it has been considered very rare among Japanese. The majority of patients are diagnosed in infancy or childhood. The patient in this case report was a 45-year-old Japanese man who had not been diagnosed as having cystic fibrosis. This patient had recurrent episodes of pulmonary infection that started in childhood, and plain films of the chest showed increased interstitial markings, hyperaeration, and bronchiectasis. CT of the upper abdomen showed a generally enlarged pancreas with complete fatty replacement. serum and urine pancreatic enzyme levels were low, suggesting pancreatic insufficiency. Repeated sweat tests were positive. A roentgenologic skeletal survey showed general demineralization, which may be multifactorial. In this case, it was concluded that vitamin d deficiency caused by vitamin D malabsorption and/or insufficient sunlight exposure was mainly responsible for the demineralization and that chronic respiratory acidosis might also be partially responsible.
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4/15. The impact of cystic fibrosis on recovery from orthopedic trauma: a case study.

    cystic fibrosis has effects on many body systems, including the skeletal system. In this case, we describe the impact of respiratory and endocrine disease on bone healing following orthopedic trauma in a 22-year-old woman. Limitations to mobility resulting from trauma complicated her respiratory condition. disease-related effects on bone health and healing delayed her recovery from the trauma. It is important to recognize the multisystemic nature of CF, even when managing acute orthopedic injuries.
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5/15. cystic fibrosis: production of high levels of uromodulin-like protein by HLA-DR blood monocytes differentiating towards a fibroblastic phenotype.

    We report here the spontaneous in vitro transformation of blood monocytes into fibroblasts, in a patient suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). The blood monocytes with this capacity express HLA-DR specificity. monocytes were identified by non-specific esterase activity and by immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies against monocytes/macrophages antigens. Neo-fibroblasts were identified by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies against a cytoplasmic enzyme specifically involved in the synthesis of collagen. The secretion of collagen was evidenced using antibodies against type I collagen. Both monocytes/macrophages and neo-fibroblasts express the monocytic and the fibroblastic markers and synthesize type I collagen. This transformation observed in vitro might mimick the process of fibrosis development which takes place in vivo, particularly in pancreatic acini, lungs and intestine of patients with CF. Interestingly, the whole process in vitro is inhibited when T lymphocytes are properly stimulated by IL2. In addition, both monocytes and neo-fibroblasts secrete high quantities of uromodulin-like glycoprotein. The significance of this finding is discussed in relation to the thick mucus secretion which characterizes the disease. In addition, from a fundamental point of view, it confirmed in a large series of patients that this observation may have significant implications, since CF mutation impairs the gene coding for cAMP-regulated Cl- channel and that it has been proposed that uromodulin might be implicated in Cl- transport. Therefore the question of the relationships between uromodulin and the cAMP-regulated Cl- channel arises.
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6/15. Massive florid reactive periostitis.

    Florid reactive periostitis is a rare, benign process usually occurring in the small, tubular bones of the hands and feet. Typically the lesion occurs in an adolescent or young adult and presents as a small area of pain and erythema over the affected bone. Although the histologic features may suggest malignancy, there is usually little radiographic evidence to support such a diagnosis. In the following report an unusual example of this entity is described whose large size and relentless local progression led to initial diagnostic uncertainty and eventual aggressive management. This case suggests that a wide spectrum of radiologic and morphologic changes may be seen in this entity and that a seemingly unrelated genetic disease may alter the typical clinical course.
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7/15. Pulmonary hemosiderosis in a child with cystic fibrosis.

    Two episodes of acute iron deficiency anemia with blood-stained sputum and symptoms of severe acute pulmonary exacerbation were observed in a child with cystic fibrosis (CF). hemosiderin laden macrophages (siderophages) were repeatedly found in sputum and gastric juice, suggesting the coexistence of pulmonary hemosiderosis (PH). The possibility that pulmonary immune-mediated mechanisms characteristic of CF may have played a role in the development of PH is considered.
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8/15. A pathologic study of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    A lung biopsy specimen was obtained from a 10-year-old boy with cystic fibrosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Light microscopy revealed a marked inflammatory process that was largely bronchocentric. Infiltrating cells included lymphocytes, plasma cells, monocytes, and numerous eosinophils. elastin layers were intact in blood vessels and markedly disrupted in bronchioles. By immunofluorescent, major basic protein was demonstrated in eosinophils, was freely deposited outside of eosinophils, especially in the interlobular septum, and was taken up by macrophages. A number of lymphocytes stained positively for IgE. Through an immunoperoxidase stain, septate hyphae of aspergillus were clearly observed in the lung parenchyma. A significant increase in interleukin-2 positive-staining T cells was observed with an approximate 2:1 ratio of helper to suppressor cells. The use of newer immunohistologic techniques has enabled us to gain additional insights into the pathogenesis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.
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9/15. Longterm histopathologic follow-up of bronchial arteries after therapeutic embolization with polyvinyl alcohol (Ivalon) in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    We used light microscopy to examine, at autopsy, bronchial arteries in three patients with cystic fibrosis who died, respectively, 10, 16, and 28 months after bronchial artery embolization with barium sulfate-impregnated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to control hemoptysis. PVA was not identified beyond the midsegmental bronchus in any patient. Persistent focal fibrovascular occlusion was noted in two patients, and recanalized and/or partially obstructed vessels were associated with PVA in all. The histologic reaction to PVA included fibrosis, mild chronic inflammation, localized foreign body reaction, and, in two patients, focal calcification of PVA spicules. Within the inflammatory milieu were numerous macrophages containing BaSO4. Extensive vascular mural destruction and fibrosis associated with PVA were also observed. Both PVA and BaSO4 were also frequently present in the perivascular connective tissue. These findings indicate that, although longterm occlusion persists after therapeutic arterial embolization with PVA, focal recanalization also occurs. The extent of vascular mural injury following PVA embolization in humans has been previously underestimated by animal experiments. Finally, perivascular deposition of PVA represents a common reaction to diverse foreign body emboli in both systemic and pulmonary arteries.
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keywords = macrophage
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10/15. Respiratory infections may reflect deficiencies in host defense mechanisms.

    Serious respiratory tract infections are rare in the healthy individual and most of the nuisance morbidity that occurs results from nasopharyngeal viral infections that many people get once or twice a year. The economic impact from these upper respiratory tract infections is appreciable, however, in terms of absenteeism from school or work, but unfortunately there is little that can be done to ward them off in a practical way. pneumonia is an infrequent lifetime experience for most non-smoking adults and when it occurs, unusual circumstances may pertain--a particularly virulent microorganism is in circulation, or perhaps one has been exposed to a newly recognized germ, such as has occurred with legionella species in the past 8 years or so. What protects us the great majority of the time is a very effective network of respiratory tract host defenses. These include many mechanical and anatomical barrier mechanisms concentrated in nose and throat; mucociliary clearance, coughing and mucosal immunoglobulins in the conducting airways and in the air-exchange region of the alveolar structures, phagocytes, opsonins, complement, surfactant and many other factors combine to clear infectious agents. The ability to mount an inflammatory response in the alveoli may represent the maximal and ultimate expression of local host defense. In some way these host defenses are combating constantly the influx of micro-organisms, usually inhaled or aspirated into the airways, that try to gain a foothold on the mucosal surface and colonize it. But many general changes in overall health such as debility, poor nutrition, metabolic derangements, bone marrow suppression and perhaps aging promote abnormal microbial colonization and undermine the body's defenses that try to cope with the situation. It is a dynamic struggle. The departure from normal respiratory health may not be obvious immediately to the patient or to the physician and repeated episodes of infection or persisting symptoms of cough, expectoration and sinus or ear infections may develop before serious assessment of the situation is taken and appropriate diagnosis gotten underway. Obvious explanations for respiratory infections may be apparent and, nowadays, side effects from antineoplastic chemotherapy or immunosuppressive therapy for a variety of diseases that create an immunocompromised host are common. In a few subjects, especially young adults who present with a cumulative history of frequent but mild infections in childhood and youth, a subtle deficiency in host defenses may exist and have been partially masked because of attentive pediatric medical care and prompt use of broad spectrum antibiotics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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