Cases reported "Cystitis"

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1/172. Tubulovillous adenoma of the urinary bladder.

    We report a case of vesical tubulovillous adenoma that occurred in a background of protracted chronic cystitis with intestinal-type glandular metaplasia and extensive cellular atypia (dysplasia) in the flat mucosa. flow cytometry analysis showed dna aneuploidy in the adenoma. Increased expression of the tumor suppresser gene, p53, and also of cellular proliferation markers (proliferating cell nuclear antigen and MIB-1) were detected in the villous adenoma and in the dysplastic regions of the flat metaplastic mucosa. These findings provide insight into the biology of intestinal metaplasia and also lend support to the theory of the chronic irritation-metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence.
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2/172. Haemorrhagic cystitis associated with adenovirus in a patient with AIDS treated for a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Adenovirus-induced haemorrhagic cystitis has been reported chiefly in bone marrow or kidney transplant recipients. We report here on an hiv-positive patient treated for a Burkitt's lymphoma who developed gross haematuria associated with fever and burning urination. Usual causes of haematuria were ruled out: lithiasis, urinary tract lesions, glomerulonephritis, mycobacterium and schistosoma infections, and drug toxicity. Adenovirus was detected by cellular cultures and BK/jc virus dna sequences were detected using a polymerase chain reaction method. Because BK/JC virus shedding is very common (75%) in hiv patients receiving chemotherapy, our data strongly suggest that adenovirus was responsible for the haemorrhagic cystitis in our patient. In conclusion, adenovirus should be considered as a potential cause of haemorrhagic cystitis in AIDS patients whose immunosuppression is aggravated by cytotoxic drugs.
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3/172. Hemorrhagic pyelitis, ureteritis, and cystitis secondary to cyclophosphamide: case report and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE: Hemorrhagic cystitis is a well-known complication of cyclophosphamide therapy but extensive involvement of the entire urinary tract is far less common. We report here a patient who developed severe hemorrhagic pyelitis, ureteritis, and cystitis after one cycle of cyclophosphamide-containing combination chemotherapy. METHOD: A patient with synchronous carcinoma of the ovary and the uterus developed severe hemorrhagic pyelitis, ureteritis, and cystitis leading to bilateral hydronephroses and acute renal failure after one cycle of combination chemotherapy containing cyclophosphamide. The blood clots in the upper urinary tract were aspirated endoscopically and bilateral internal ureteric stents were inserted. RESULT: She underwent a prolonged diuretic phase with several episodes of hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia and required intensive fluid and electrolytes replacement. Subsequently, she recovered fully with the ureteric stents removed 26 days later. CONCLUSION: In contrast to previous reports, where 2.8 g of cyclophosphamide was estimated to be the minimum cumulative dose required to cause hemorrhagic cystitis, this case illustrates that severe hemorrhagic complication can occur even after a low dose of cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m(2), total dose of 846 mg). Prompt diagnosis and intervention may be life-saving.
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4/172. Bladder cancer arising in a spina bifida patient.

    We report the case of a 52-year-old patient with spina bifida, neurologic bladder, and a history of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in whom a bladder cancer was incidentally discovered. Cytology, cystoscopy, and cystography showed nonspecific, extensive inflammatory lesions. Cystography demonstrated a complex of diverticulae and cellules. Pathologic examination of a diverticulectomy specimen revealed a grade III pT3b transitional and squamous cell carcinoma. Because of the similar disease causation (recurrent UTIs, stones, and indwelling catheterization), we suggest extension of the guidelines proposed for patients with spinal cord injuries (ie, annual serial bladder biopsies) to patients with nontraumatic neurogenic bladder.
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5/172. Genitourinary complications of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    A 14-year-old African-American girl was diagnosed with antiphospholipid-positive systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in July 1994. The course was complicated by nephrotic syndrome, sepsis, hemolytic anemia, acute renal failure, saphenous vein thrombosis, cutaneous vasculitis, mesenteric vasculitis, appendicitis, hemorrhagic cystitis, and avascular necrosis of the hips. In August 1997, she developed ovarian and fallopian tube complications secondary to SLE. Genitourinary complications of SLE, however, are uncommon, and ovarian vasculitis has not previously been reported as a complication of SLE. This report describes the course of an adolescent patient with SLE and focuses specifically on her genitourinary complications.
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6/172. trichomonas vaginalis in a perinephric abscess. A case report.

    A patient with chronic vulvo-vaginitis due to trichomonas vaginalis, and obstructive uropathy associated with renal calculi, developed a perinephric abscess following trauma incurred in a motorcycle accident. T. vaginalis was seen on smear and cultured from the purulent drainage from the perinephric abscess. Although T. vaginalis is commonly pathogenic only to the lower genito-urinary system, the upper urinary tract may very rarely be involved by ascending infection. If this protozoan spreads to extraluminal sites the inflammatory potential is marked, as has been found in animals with experimental infection. Examination of a fresh smear of pus may be critically important in the diagnosis of closed-space infections of unknown etiology.
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7/172. Emphysematous cystitis following brain contusion.

    Emphysematous cystitis is a rare disorder most commonly seen in patients with urinary tract infection and diabetes mellitus. We present a nondiabetic case of a 46-year-old woman with this entity following brain contusion.
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8/172. radiation-induced pseudocarcinomatous proliferations of the urinary bladder: a report of 4 cases.

    Four cases of radiation cystitis that caused diagnostic difficulty because of an epithelial proliferation with architectural complexity and reactive cytologic atypia are described. The patients, 2 male, 2 female, were from 43 to 77 years of age. Two presented with hematuria. cystoscopy disclosed abnormalities in 3 patients. Microscopic examination showed irregularly shaped and arranged aggregates of epithelial cells in the upper and mid zones of the lamina propria. The cells, which typically showed at least mild, and sometimes severe, pleomorphism, were usually transitional, but squamous differentiation was seen focally in 3 cases. Ulceration of the overlying epithelium was present in all cases and was prominent and associated with conspicuous fibrin and hemorrhage in one of them. edema of the lamina propria was present in 3 cases, whereas lamina propria fibrosis and chronic inflammation were present in all cases. The presence in all 4 cases of vascular ectasia and other changes characteristic of radiation injury, such as atypical fibroblasts, prompted investigation of the clinical history in 2 cases in which the pathologist was unaware that the patient had received radiation. Pseudocarcinomatous proliferations in the bladder caused by radiation injury have received limited attention in the literature. Our cases illustrate the potential diagnostic errors with which these lesions may be associated.
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9/172. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy control of intractable hematuria following radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. A novel approach.

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the utility of endoscopic sclerotherapy using 1% ethoxysclerol for the control of intractable hematuria following post-irradiation telangiectatic cystitis (PTC). methods: Our experience of treating 4 patients (one female and three male) with massive exsanguinating hematuria resulting from PTC, using a combined intralesional and perilesional injection of 1% ethoxysclerol, is presented. observation on the distribution, grading of telangiectasis and pattern of bleeding are made. RESULTS: A dramatic and lasting cessation of the hematuria in all the 4 patients was achieved during the follow-up period varying from 1 month to 4 years. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy is a simple, highly effective, less invasive new technique in the management of massive and intractable hematuria due to radiation-induced telangiectasia of the urinary bladder.
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10/172. Pyocystis: two case reports of patients in renal failure.

    Two cases of pyocystis in patients in end-stage renal disease are reported. Pyocystis is a recognized complication of urinary diversion procedures, but also occurs in anuric or oliguric hemodialysis patients. The treatment differs from ordinary cystitis, requiring catheterization, bladder irrigation, and intravesical antibiotic instillation. When undiagnosed, pyocystis may progress to sepsis and death.
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