Cases reported "Cysts"

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1/116. Arachnoid cyst of the middle fossa with paradoxical changes of the bony structures.

    Two patients with an arachnoid cyst of the middle fossa showed paradoxical changes of the adjoining bony structures of the skull. There was a diminution of the middle fossa and hyperplasia of the sphenoid sinus (pneumosinus dilatans) as well as a marked bulging of the squamous part of the temporal bone. In one case in which scinticisternography was performed, communication between the cyst and the subarachnoidal space was proven as well as an extremely slow cerebrospinal fluid circulation in the cyst. The pathogenesis of the cyst is discussed, based upon the structural changes of the skull, the angiographic findings and the locally disturbed cerebrospinal fluid circulation. The primary disturbance seems to be a temporal lobe agenesis.
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2/116. Segment IV liver cyst with biliary communication following laparoscopic deroofing.

    Simple cysts of the liver rarely have a biliary communication. We record the development of a biliary communication following laparoscopic deroofing of a segment IV simple cyst of liver and document its successful sclerosis with tetracycline.
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3/116. Calcified bodies in popliteal cysts: a characteristic radiographic appearance.

    Calcified bodies in popliteal cysts have a characteristic radiographic appearance which can be confirmed by arthrography. Calcified bodies may arise in the true joint due to trauma, arthropathy resulting in joint destruction, or synovial osteochondromatosis. These calcified loose bodies may pass into a popliteal cyst through posterior joint-bursal communications or can arise in a popliteal cyst by chondrometaplasia. Correct radiographic interpretation will exclude soft tissue tumors and vascular lesions as differential considerations. Management of these patients will be determined by the clinical circumstances since neither popliteal cysts nor synovial osteochondromatosis are necessarily symptomatic.
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4/116. Demonstration of communication between alveolus and interstitium in persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema: case report.

    Persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema (PIPE) is an uncommon complication of premature infants suffering from hyaline membrane disease who have been treated with mechanical ventilation. The presumed mechanism for the development of the disease is via a break in the bronchioalveolar system that allows air to escape into the interstitium. We report a case of a 9-week-old child who developed the localized form of the disease and underwent a lobectomy. Immunohistochemical stains helped to demonstrate the communication between the airway system and interstitium. This report strengthens the theory that the disease develops from airway rupture at the alveolar level.
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5/116. Intraspinal extradural cysts communicating with adjacent herniated disks: imaging characteristics and possible pathogenesis.

    We report two cases of intraspinal extradural cysts communicating with an adjacent herniated disk that we term "disk cysts." These cysts were well defined and homogeneous, and were present in the ventrolateral extradural space adjacent to a lumbar herniated disk. They had rim enhancement on contrast-enhanced MR images, and communication with a herniated disk was revealed by diskography.
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6/116. Endoscopic treatment of symptomatic septum pellucidum cysts: with some preliminary observations on the ultrastructure of the cyst wall: two technical case reports.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: We describe two patients with symptomatic septum pellucidum cysts managed by endoscopic fenestration. In each case, tissue from the cyst wall was studied to define the origin of the cyst wall and fluid. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The patients, a 6-year-old boy and a 42-year-old man, each presented with headaches and a syncopal episode. Imaging studies demonstrated large septum pellucidum cysts with obstruction of the foramina of Monro. INTERVENTION: The patients underwent endoscopic transventricular cyst fenestration with a 4-mm steerable fiberscope. The fenestrations were created to allow communication with the right and left lateral ventricles. In one patient, adhesions between the cyst wall and the foramen of Monro were lysed with endoscopic monopolar cautery. Tissue from the cyst walls was removed for examination by electron microscopy. Postoperatively, the headaches and syncopal episodes resolved in both patients. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic fenestration of symptomatic septum pellucidum cysts produces immediate relief of the mass effect of the cyst and resolution of associated symptoms. Cannulation of the lateral ventricle before cyst fenestration prevents inadvertent injury to the fornices, thalamus, internal capsule, caudate nucleus, and septal and thalamostriate veins. The endoscopic approach allows the surgeon to ensure communication within the ventricular system, thus avoiding placement of a shunt. Preliminary ultrastructural analysis indicates that the cyst walls derive from the septum pellucidum rather than the choroid plexus or arachnoid. The cellular machinery necessary for fluid secretion was identified in some specimens.
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7/116. Spinal intramedullary ependymal cyst: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: Spinal intramedullary ependymal cysts are extremely rare. Only seven pathologically proven cases have been reported in the literature. METHOD: We present an 18-month-old female with thoracic spinal intramedullary ependymal cyst that was diagnosed pathologically. RESULTS: Histological diagnosis was made by light microscopy after immunostaining. After partially removing the cyst wall and establishing communication between the cyst and the subarachnoid space, the patient improved neurologically. CONCLUSIONS: For spinal intramedullary ependymal cyst we recommend diagnosis by MR imaging without myelography, then enucleation of the cyst, if possible. Otherwise, we remove the cyst wall as much as possible and create adequate communication between the cyst and the subarachnoid space.
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8/116. prenatal diagnosis of cystic bladder distension secondary to obstructive uropathy.

    We report the perinatal findings of a huge midline posterior cystic bladder distension secondary to lower urinary tract obstruction and prune-belly syndrome in a male fetus. A 40-year-old woman, gravida 3, para 0, was referred at 21 gestation weeks with sonographic findings of anhydramnios and a fetus with a 9.5 x 6.0 cm intra-abdominal cystic mass containing two chambers. The in utero ultrasound-guided fetal bladder drainage using a single needle aspiration and the ultrasound follow-ups of fetal bladder filling provided a diagnostic aid. This method helped to show the position of the bladder and the cystic bladder mass as well as the status of communication in response to decompression or filling of the fetal bladder. cytogenetic analysis revealed a 46,XY karyotype. autopsy showed agenesis of the posterior urethra, prominent megacystis, a cystically distended mass arising from the lower posterior bladder, hydronephrosis, megaureters, and anorectal agenesis with an intestinal blind end adherent to the posterior wall of the uterus. There were no urogenital duplication, hindgut duplication, or urachal abnormalities. The contracted bladder had a full-thickness muscular wall with a trigone and two ureteral orifices while the cystically distended bladder did not have any opening and was lined by a very thin wall. histology of the cystic bladder wall demonstrated typical urothelium, lamina propria and muscularis propria. The pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of cystic bladder distension are discussed.
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9/116. Symptomatic lateral ventricular ependymal cysts: criteria for distinguishing these rare cysts from other symptomatic cysts of the ventricles: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Symptomatic lateral ventricular ependymal cysts are rare. Two previous cases of this lesion have been reported in the literature. We report a third case and provide radiological and histopathological criteria for differentiating this entity from common intracranial cysts. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old man presented with a 6-year history of seizures and progressive right occipitoparietal headaches. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a 4- x 3- x 3-cm nonenhancing cystic mass, expanding the trigone of the right lateral ventricle. INTERVENTION: The patient underwent a right occipital craniotomy. The cyst was opened, fluid was aspirated, the cyst wall was biopsied, and a cyst-subarachnoid communication was established. The patient did well postoperatively, with no seizures and with resolution of headaches. CONCLUSION: Lateral ventricular ependymal cysts are a rare cause of neurological symptoms, including headache and seizure. Distinctive radiographic characteristics distinguish these cysts at preoperative evaluation. Careful analysis of the histopathology and immunohistochemistry studies correctly identifies these lesions, gives insight into the natural history of ependymal cysts, and guides clinical management decisions.
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10/116. Ciliated foregut cyst of the gallbladder: a case report and review of the literature.

    A case is presented of a ciliated cyst of the gallbladder in a 36-year-old Korean woman which was incidentally found on ultrasonographic study. A cystic mass measuring 1.5 x 1 x 1 cm was found in the fundus of the gallbladder. The cyst was unilocular and intramural without communication to the lumen. Microscopically, the cyst wall was lined by a single layer of pseudostratified, ciliated, columnar epithelium and goblet cells with underlying smooth muscle layers. This was considered to be the cyst arising from the embryonic foregut and showing differentiation toward respiratory structures. The term 'ciliated foregut cyst of the gallbladder' is suggested here.
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