Cases reported "Cysts"

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11/543. adenocarcinoma arising within a tailgut cyst: clinicopathological description and follow up of an unusual case.

    Full clinicopathological details and clinical follow up of a case of malignant transformation within a tailgut cyst are presented. A 43 year old woman presented with signs and symptoms of an imminent threatened abortion. Routine examination identified a coincidental, asymptomatic retrorectal/presacral mass. Following imaging studies, surgical resection was carried out and an adenocarcinoma arising within a pre-existent tailgut cyst was identified by microscopy. Four years later the patient presented with neurological symptoms consistent with local recurrence of the tumour. Surgical biopsies confirmed this diagnosis and she was subsequently started on chemotherapy. She died soon after from a cause unrelated to the disease, after declining further active intervention. Differential diagnosis of such cases includes (cystic) teratoma, epidermal cyst, rectal duplication cyst, anal gland cyst and carcinoma, extension of local carcinoma, and metastatic disease. It is recommended that these lesions be completely excised when detected incidentally.
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12/543. Familial fatal and near-fatal third ventricle colloid cysts.

    BACKGROUND: Despite having a presumed congenital origin, familial cases of colloid cysts have been reported only rarely. The first case of a brother and sister with colloid cysts is reported here, and the relevant literature is reviewed. methods: A 25-year-old man presented with a 24-h history of headache and vomiting. He rapidly became unconscious and fulfilled the criteria for brain death on arrival at hospital. No surgical intervention was performed. RESULTS: The patient's sister presented at the age of 41 with headaches and rapidly became unconscious. The sister had urgent bilateral ventriculostomies. followed by transcallosal removal of a colloid cyst. CONCLUSIONS: These cases support the hypothesis that colloid cysts are congenital lesions and provide some evidence of a possible genetic predisposition to their formation. Sudden death remains a real risk for patients harbouring a colloid cyst.
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13/543. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst.

    Ciliated hepatic foregut cysts are rare congenital lesions derived from the embryologic foregut. They are considered benign, and a review of 64 published cases revealed no instances of malignant transformation. We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a ciliated hepatic foregut cyst in a 51-year-old man. The tumor was found during a routine cholecystectomy and involved the adjacent mesentery and duodenal wall. There was histologic evidence of perineural and perivascular involvement. Despite an en bloc resection of the tumor and contiguous areas of gross involvement, the patient died 2 months later. Although aspiration of cyst contents is an accepted treatment for asymptomatic lesions, this case suggests that most ciliated hepatic foregut cysts should be excised, especially when radiologic studies yield equivocal results.
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14/543. Testicular cystic dysplasia: evaluation of 3 new cases treated without surgery.

    PURPOSE: We describe 3 cases of testicular cystic dysplasia that were diagnosed only by sonography to avoid an invasive approach. MATERIALS AND methods: Three patients 5, 8 and 12 years old, respectively, had increased testicular volume and/or intermittent pain. Sonographic examination of the testis by high frequency (7.5 mHz.) probes showed the typical onset of testicular cystic dysplasia, characterized by several small focal or diffuse intraparenchymal cystic formations. RESULTS: biopsy or orchiectomy was not considered. At 16, 18 and 24 months of followup, respectively, testicular pain was absent in our 3 cases and sonographic findings were unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and sonographic followup is considered sufficient to evaluate possible changes in the clinical course of this pathological condition which, although benign, still remains to be defined.
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15/543. dandy-walker syndrome successfully treated with cystoperitoneal shunting--case report.

    A neonate presented with dandy-walker syndrome manifesting as a large posterior cranial fossa cyst, aplasia of the lower cerebellar vermis, and elevation of the confluence of the sinuses but without hydrocephalus. A cystoperitoneal shunt was placed at one month after birth. The cyst diminished in size, and marked development of the cerebellar hemispheres and descent of the confluence of sinuses were observed, but not vermis development. The primary pathology of dandy-walker syndrome is posterior cranial fossa cyst formation due to passage obstruction in the fourth ventricle exit area and aplasia of the lower cerebellar vermis. The first choice of treatment in patients with dandy-walker syndrome in whom the cerebral aqueduct is open is cystoperitoneal shunt surgery, regardless of the presence or absence of hydrocephalus.
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16/543. Pseudocyst formation after abdominoplasty--extravasations of Morel-Lavallee.

    A soft tissue injury can lead to the formation of a pseudocyst in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, due to a seroma, haematoma or fat necrosis. These cysts were first described in 1853 by the French physician Morel-Lavallee. He observed the phenomenon in the lower limb in women after a tangential trauma with separation of the fatty layers. A similar condition can occur following surgery of the abdomen, when performing liposuction and subcutaneous dissection with a large dead space. In this report we present two cases with large pseudocysts in the abdominal wall, which were seen in long term follow-up after an abdominoplasty performed elsewhere. The pathogenesis, the treatment and the literature are discussed.
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17/543. A case of very large cyst formation with Gamma Knife radiosurgery for an arteriovenous malformation.

    A 17-year-old male patient underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for a left parietal arteriovenous malformation (AVM), which presented with hemorrhage. The 15.0 cm3 nidus was covered with the 50% isodose. The maximum dose was 50 Gy and the margin dose was 25 Gy. Eleven months later he developed a right hemiparesis and MRI showed a large cyst. cerebral angiography showed partial obliteration of the AVM nidus. Stereotactic removal of cyst fluid (about 70 cm3) was performed, and an Ommaya reservoir was inserted. Cyst formation after GKRS for cerebral arteriovenous malformation is a is side effect of radiosurgery about which we need to learn more.
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18/543. Congenital cystic tumors of the atrio-ventricular node: successful demonstration by an abbreviated dissection of the conduction system.

    Pathologists are dissuaded from the pathological study of the conduction system by the high cost and complexity of a traditional complete study. However, a simplified, low-cost approach can produce concrete information when performed in carefully selected cases of atrioventricular block, as demonstrated in the two cases of congenital cystic tumor of the atrioventricular node described in this report.
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19/543. Paraovarian cystic endosalpingiosis in association with tamoxifen therapy.

    This report describes a case of macroscopically visible cystic endosalpingiosis involving the paraovarian region in a woman who had been taking tamoxifen for breast cancer. A 2.5 cm multicystic lesion was seen on the external surface of the right ovary and histological examination showed a mass of dilated glands lined by ciliated tubal-type epithelium and set in a fibrovascular stroma. Cystic endosalpingiosis resulting in a tumour-like mass is a rarely described entity which is probably not well recognised by histopathologists. Although unlikely to be mistaken for malignancy, the lesion may result in diagnostic confusion. The role of tamoxifen in the development of the lesion in the present case is not clear but the oestrogenic effects of this drug may have contributed to its formation.
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20/543. Tumor bed cyst formation after BCNU wafer implantation: report of two cases.

    BACKGROUND: Interstitial implantation of BCNU wafers is currently used to treat glioblastoma multiforme. Known complications of BCNU wafer implantation include abnormalities of wound healing (including CSF leak), edema formation, and intracranial infection. The purpose of this report is to alert neurosurgeons to an additional potential side effect: formation of a cystic mass within the implanted tumor bed.CASE PRESENTATIONS: Two patients are described: a 54-year-old male, who presented with a large right parieto-occipital mass, and a 47-year-old woman with a large right frontal lobe tumor. Both tumors were found on initial craniotomy to be glioblastoma multiforme; both recurred rapidly despite radiation therapy. patients were treated with a second craniotomy for tumor resection and placement of BCNU wafers. After implantation, the first patient did well for 6 weeks, then developed lethargy, headaches, and vomiting. CT scan showed a large cyst at the craniotomy site; this required reoperation for drainage. The second patient had a seizure, deterioration of mental status, and progressive hemiparesis 10 days after wafer implantation. CT scan again showed that a large cyst had formed in the area of the previous surgery; she also required reoperation. In each case, minimal tumor and no evidence of infection were found. Within a few more weeks, each patient succumbed to progressive disease. CONCLUSIONS: The hypodense, roughly spherical cysts clearly demonstrated clinically significant mass effect, and required reoperation despite treatment with high-dose corticosteroids. Neurosurgeons should be alert to the possibility of tumor bed cyst formation in patients treated with interstitial BCNU wafers.
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