Cases reported "Cysts"

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1/27. Choledochal cysts: a clinical and radiological evaluation of 21 cases.

    Choledochal cysts are predominantly a disease of children, the majority of which are female. The classical symptoms usually form part of a triad of jaundice, abdominal pain and a mass. The radiological features may be non specific and specific. Our experience of 21 cases with particular emphasis on the specific features which outline the cyst are presented.
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2/27. Cystic schwannomas of the jugular foramen: clinical and surgical remarks.

    OBJECTIVE: The goals of this report were to outline the clinical presentation, radiological characteristics, surgical techniques, postoperative morbidity, and long-term follow-up results for cystic jugular foramen (JF) schwannomas and to describe their differences, compared with solid schwannomas involving the JF. methods: A retrospective analysis of radiological studies and surgical records identified five primarily cystic tumors among 21 cases of JF schwannomas that had been surgically treated at our institution. RESULTS: Two types of cystic JF schwannomas were observed, i.e., Type 1 lesions, which are single large cysts with thin ring-like enhancement of the tumor wall, and Type 2 lesions, which are multiple cysts with very irregular, thick enhancement of the cyst wall. The most common symptoms were hearing loss, ataxia, and headaches. Total surgical removal could be performed in all cases. The immediate postoperative findings indicated hearing improvement in three cases. No deterioration of lower cranial nerve function was observed. All patients were independent in the immediate postoperative period and in the long-term follow-up period (Karnofsky Performance Scale score, 90). CONCLUSION: Surgical treatment of cystic JF schwannomas can be very demanding because of generally stronger adhesion of the tumor capsule to the surrounding structures, fragile tumor capsules, and difficulty in identification of the arachnoidal planes in some cases. Early identification of the arachnoidal planes without opening of the cyst and sharp dissection may be useful. Careful intradural opening of the JF should be performed to achieve total removal of the last tumor portion within the JF. A comparison of these lesions with solid schwannomas involving the JF indicated that cystic tumors affected a younger population, with less preoperative swallowing impairment (P < 0.05). The immediate postoperative course in both types of cystic JF schwannomas was usually better than for solid lesions, because of minor postoperative cranial nerve morbidity, especially involving lower cranial nerve function, in the latter cases. Long-term follow-up data failed to demonstrate any significant differences in final patient outcomes, however.
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3/27. Duplication cyst of the pylorus--a rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction in the newborn.

    Duplication cysts of the pylorus are the rarest of alimentary tract duplications with very few reported cases. We present such a cyst in a neonate presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. We have also reviewed the literature and outlined the theories of origin, modes of presentation, diagnosis and the surgical procedures. Even though several modes of surgery have been described, it is best to individualize the surgical option in each case. The results depend on the nature and site of duplication, complications and the associated anomalies.
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4/27. Cytology of microcystic meningioma in crush preparation.

    Microcystic meningioma is a rare variant of meningioma, showing microcystic formations throughout the tumor. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports describing cytologic findings of microcystic meningioma. Our case was a 66-yr-old woman with a tumor mass adhered to the dura matter. The crush preparations of a small tissue fragment resected from the mass showed medium- to large-sized, well-cohesive clusters or sheets of uniform tumor cells. The tumor cells did not show a feathering-off pattern. Various-sized cystic spaces were observed within the clusters and sheets. The cytoplasm was relatively abundant, and the nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio was lower than that of classic meningioma. We believe that the cystic spaces within the cell clusters or sheets are characteristic of microcystic meningioma. The cytology of microcystic meningioma seen in our case was similar to that of metastatic adenocarcinoma, but relatively monotonous bland cells, smooth nuclear outline, and inconspicuous nucleoli led us to the diagnosis of meningioma rather than adenocarcinoma.
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5/27. Echocardiographic identification of a pericardial cyst.

    The echocardiogram of a woman with an anterior mediastinal mass showed an echo-free space between the chest wall and the right ventricle. The interface of mass with pericardium was outlined by a narrow echo. These findings suggested a homogeneous fluid-filled, thin-walled sac. Postoperation, echocardiography was normal.
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6/27. Laparoscopic management of retrovesical cystic disease: washington University experience and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Recently, the laparoscopic approach to the management of seminal vesicle cysts has been described. This report outlines the washington University experience and reviews the present literature to evaluate the results of the laparoscopic approach to the excision of retrovesical cysts of seminal vesicle and Mullerian origin. patients AND methods: The hospital and office records of three patients undergoing laparoscopic excision of seminal vesicle and Mullerian duct cyst disease between April 1993 and March 1999 were reviewed for the operative time, the estimated blood loss, total hospital stay, total analgesia required postoperatively, the time to resumption of oral intake, and the postoperative recovery. A literature search revealed two additional reports of laparoscopic management of cystic disease of the seminal vesicle, comprising only one and two patients. An additional review of the literature was performed to compare the laparoscopic procedure with the transvesical, transurethral, open transvesical, and open retrovesical approach for the management of the disease. RESULTS: For the three patients at washington University, the operative time averaged 4 hours (range 1.8-6.1 hours), and the mean estimated blood loss was 150 mL (range 50-200 nL). The patients required a mean of 43 mg of morphine sulfate for postoperative pain control, had a mean hospital stay of 2.6 days, and resumed oral intake 5.8 hours postoperatively. In combination with the three other cases reported in the literature, the average operative time for laparoscopic retrovesical cyst excision was 2.9 hours, and the average hospital stay was 2.2 days. With an average follow-up of 17 months, all six patients had excellent resolution of their preoperative symptoms. There have been no major or minor complications or any need for further operative therapy. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic excision of retrovesical cystic disease is an effective surgical procedure, associated with minimal postoperative morbidity, short hospitalization, and a rapid recovery for the patient.
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7/27. An unusual cause of epistaxis: a haemophilic pseudotumour in a non-haemophiliac, arising in a paranasal sinus.

    Most cases of epistaxis are due to simple causes and are easily treated on an out-patient basis. However, there are some cases where the origin of bleeding is not obvious or arises from an unusual pathological source. The authors describe a case of epistaxis due to a mass in the maxillary antrum that when biopsied showed the histological appearances of a haemophilic pseudotumour. The patient was anticoagulated on warfarin for a cardiac valve replacement and this was thought to be the cause of the ongoing haemorrhage necessary for development of the pseudotumour. Even in haemophiliacs, pseudotumours are rare and we believe this case is unique in that the patient is a non-haemophiliac. The epistaxis was eventually controlled by external beam radiotherapy to the pseudotumour. The management of this case is outlined as well as a review of the literature on haemophilic pseudotumour.
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8/27. Visualization of conjunctival cyst by indocyanine green.

    PURPOSE: To report complete removal of conjunctival cyst using indocyanine green solution to facilitate visualization.DESIGN: Interventional case report. methods: A 71-year-old woman referred with the diagnosis of severe conjunctival chemosis of her right eye of several months' duration was found to have a large conjunctival cyst. After informed consent was obtained, surgical resection of the cyst was performed. RESULTS: Under topical anesthesia, indocyanine green solution was injected through a 27-gauge needle into the conjunctival cyst. This achieved excellent visualization of the cyst outline and facilitated complete resection. During the resection, staining of the cyst wall remained despite a small perforation in the capsule, and complete resection was achieved without difficulty. CONCLUSION: Injection of indocyanine green solution into a conjunctival cyst may be used to facilitate visualization and aid in complete resection of the cyst wall.
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9/27. pheochromocytoma with posthemorrhagic cystic degeneration: magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    We describe in vivo and in vitro magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a pheochromocytoma with posthemorrhagic cystic degeneration in a 74-year-old man. The in vivo MR images showed the mass as an area of homogeneous moderate hyperintensity with a central area of intense hyperintensity outlined by a thin hypointense rim on a T2-weighted image. The in vitro MR images showed a hyperintense rim around the central cystic area consistent with hemorrhage on T1-weighted gradient-echo images with short echo times (1.6 and 4.2 msec) and more distinctly revealed the blurring effect due to susceptibility of hemosiderin on those with long echo times (6 and 8 msec). hemosiderin deposition caused by intraparenchymal hemorrhage in the pheochromocytoma can be appreciated on spoiled gradient-echo images with different echo times, which is ordinarily included in the MRI protocol as phase-shift imaging.
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10/27. Cyst of the ligamentum flavum: report of six cases.

    Six cases of cyst of the ligamentum flavum with compression of a lumbar nerve root are reported. All patients exhibited recurrent back pain and sciatica. Investigation included computed tomography, myelography, or both. The correct diagnosis was reached before operation in only half the patients. High-resolution computed tomography performed in the four last patients outlined the cystic lesion with its low-density center. Surgical excision was performed in all patients. Microscopic examination showed a dense fibrous cyst arising from the ligamentum flavum. The lumen contained myxoid or necrotic material, but no epithelial lining. Cysts of the ligamentum flavum must be considered in the differential diagnosis of causes of sciatica. A firm radiological diagnosis may, at present, still require myelography combined with high-resolution computed tomography. Differentiation from synovial or ganglion cysts of the spine is discussed.
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