Cases reported "Death, Sudden, Cardiac"

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11/350. syncope in the pediatric patient. The cardiologist's perspective.

    The evaluation of syncopal children or adolescents relies heavily on a thorough, detailed history and physical examination. All syncope associated with exercise or exertion must be considered dangerous. The ECG is mandatory, but other laboratory tests are generally of limited value unless guided by pertinent positives or negatives in the history and physical examination. The ECG allows screening for dysrhythmias, such as wolff-parkinson-white syndrome, heart block, and long qt syndrome, as well as hypertrophic cardiomyopathies and myocarditis. Tilt table testing can be useful in selecting therapy by demonstrating the physiologic response leading to syncope in an individual patient. The most common type of syncope in otherwise healthy children and adolescents is neurocardiogenic or vasodepressor syncope, which is a benign and transient condition. Because syncope can be a predictor of sudden cardiac death, it must be taken seriously, and appropriate screening must be performed.
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12/350. Sudden death in an adult with a small ventricular septal defect and an aneurysmal membranous septum.

    An apparently healthy man of 26 years of age suddenly died. He was known to have had a small ventricular septal defect and complete right bundle branch block from early childhood. At post-mortem examination the small ventricular septal defect was found associated with an aneurysm of the membranous septum. Histological examination showed a normal atrioventricular node and bundle, adjacent to the aneurysm. There was fibrous interruption at the commencement of the right bundle branch, which was considered the basis of the bundle branch block. It was also considered that the right bundle branch block was of the hereditary type and that this, rather than the aneurysm of the membranous septum, was responsible for the unexpected death.
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13/350. Sudden death of a young hockey player: case report of commotio cordis.

    Despite the use of protective gear, a 15-year-old hockey player died when he was struck in the chest by a puck. This is the fifth recorded hockey death related to so-called commotio cordis, that is, blunt chest injury without myocardial structural damage. In light of inadequacies of commercial chest protectors currently in use for hockey, the authors hope to educate players and coaches about the danger of blocking shots with the chest. physicians should be aware that commotio cordis represents a distinctive pathological condition, in the event of which immediate recognition, precordial thump, CPR, and defibrillation are potentially lifesaving. Appropriate medical supervision at amateur hockey games, 911 telephone access, and on-site automated external defibrillators are issues that deserve careful consideration.
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keywords = death
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14/350. An interesting case of infant sudden death: severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in Pompe's disease.

    glycogen storage disease type ii (Pompe's disease) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder, which often leads to infantile death from severe cardiomyopathy. This case of sudden death illustrates the features of the cardiac findings in the disorder, resulting from massive lysosomal accumulation of glycogen in the heart and other tissues. Pompe's disease should be considered in cases of unexplained infantile cardiomyopathy.
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15/350. commotio cordis: sudden cardiac death in athletes.

    commotio cordis due to blunt trauma to the precordium is a rare cause of death in young athletes, occurring less frequently than all of the other athletics-related deaths. Several measures, such as the use of safety baseballs and the use of chest protectors, can help protect young athletes from commotio cordis. In general, sudden cardiac death in athletes is receiving increasing attention from the public as a result of recent deaths of high-profile athletes. Sudden cardiac death, however, is rare, with an estimated 1 out of 200,000 high school athletes at risk each year. However, the personal, physiological, and cardiovascular benefits of athletics far outweigh the risks. Therefore, the message to parents is to allow their children to participate in athletics because the benefits far outweigh the risks.
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16/350. Right ventricular cardiomyopathy. A rare and underdiagnosed cause of sudden death in young adults.

    We present an example of right ventricular cardiomyopathy, a very uncommon condition which caused sudden death in an adolescent boy. This case report is used to highlight the pathological features of this rare and poorly understood condition, which is often undiagnosed.
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17/350. association of rickettsia helvetica with chronic perimyocarditis in sudden cardiac death.

    BACKGROUND: rickettsia helvetica is the only non-imported rickettsia found in scandinavia. It was first detected in ixodes ricinus ticks, but has never been linked to human disease. We studied two young Swedish men who died of sudden cardiac failure during exercise, and who showed signs of perimyocarditis similar to those described in rickettsial disease. methods: Samples from the heart and other organs were analysed by PCR and dna sequencing. May-Grunwald-Giemsa, Grocott, and acridine-orange stains were used for histopathological examinations. Staining of R. helvetica grown on shell-vials in vero cells, and the early descriptions of R. rickettsii by H T Ricketts and S B Wohlbach served as controls. immunohistochemistry was done with proteus OX-19 rabbit antisera as the primary antibody. The structure of rickettsia-like organisms was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Serological analyses were carried out by indirect immunofluorescence with R. helvetica as the antigen. FINDINGS: By use of a semi-nested PCR, with primers specific for the 16S rRNA and 17-kDa outer-membrane-protein genes, and sequence analysis of the amplified products, genetic material from R. helvetica was detected in the pericardium and in a lymph node from the pulmonary hilum in case 1, and in a coronary artery and the heart muscle in case 2. A serological response in case 1 revealed an endpoint titre for R. helvetica of 1/320 (1/256 with R. rickettsii as the antigen). Examination of PCR-positive tissue showed chronic interstitial inflammation and the presence of rickettsia-like organisms predominantly located in the endothelium. These organisms reacted with proteus OX-19 antisera, and their size and form were consistent with rickettsia. Electron microscopy confirmed that the appearance of the organisms was similar to that described for spotted-fever rickettsia. INTERPRETATION: R. helvetica, transmitted by I. ricinus ticks, may be an important pathogen in the aetiology of perimyocarditis, which can result in sudden unexpected cardiac death in young people.
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18/350. Preventing sudden death after repair of tetralogy of fallot: complex therapy for complex patients.

    Sudden arrhythmic death in patients with repaired tetralogy of fallot or its variants has a variety of causes. Consequently, it can serve as a paradigm for management of potentially malignant arrhythmias in all pediatric patients, particularly with regard to the use of nonpharmacologic therapy for management. Five cases are presented as touchpoints for discussion and demonstrate a number of important issues concerning the assessment and reduction of sudden cardiac death risk in these patients. First, there are no clinical parameters that can be used to accurately assess risk. Second, pharmacologic agents alone rarely are adequate therapy. Third, catheter ablation and antitachycardia devices continue to play an ever increasing role in management of these patients, and, finally, additional data are necessary to establish clear management guidelines in patients with congenital heart disease at risk for arrhythmic death.
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ranking = 7
keywords = death
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19/350. extracorporeal membrane oxygenation discontinuation despite technically successful reoperation: A case report.

    Death remains a probable outcome of pediatric cardiac extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) despite increasing efforts to improve the results. On venoarterial ECMO, in an obviously hopeless situation, the decision to withdraw a life supporting measure resulting in the sudden death of a child places a heavy burden on the team. After valvulotomy of critical aortic stenosis in a prenatally diagnosed term neonate, ECMO had to be installed during postoperative resuscitation. Despite technically successful homograft implantation while on ECMO complicated by postoperative bleeding, advancing multiorgan failure resulted in ECMO withdrawal. As shown in this case report, exact termination criteria are lacking but are necessary to prevent increasing team and resource related conflicts in pediatric cardiac ECMO.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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20/350. Heart disease vis-a-vis trauma.

    Virtually all forensic experts deal not only with criminal, suspicious, accidental and suicidal deaths, but are also confronted with a wide range of deaths where a significant natural element is revealed at autopsy. The assaulted victim that dies suddenly or unexpectedly from a stroke during or immediately succeeding the receipt of some non-fatal injuries, or otherwise suffers a clinically unexplained death, can pose far greater difficulties over causation than a gun-shot or a stabbing. This paper presents an analysis of the problem and an approach for determining the cause of death in cases of concurrent trauma with heart disease, and in cases with a substantial natural element of disease but exclusion of trauma. Relevant cases with history, autopsy findings, histopathological findings and toxicological findings are presented in order to illustrate the issue from a practical angle.
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ranking = 4
keywords = death
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