Cases reported "Death, Sudden"

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1/59. Sudden death in an infant caused by rupture of a basilar artery aneurysm.

    Ruptured aneurysms of the cerebrovasculature in infancy and early childhood, except for "giant" aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations, are rare. seizures, loss of consciousness, and apnea are the usual presenting signs in infancy; symptoms such as headache or visual disturbances and signs such as cranial nerve compression or meningeal irritation commonly found in older children or adults are absent in infants. However, the morphologic findings (i.e., subarachnoid and retinal hemorrhage, and occasionally subdural hemorrhage) may be mistaken for inflicted trauma, especially if the aneurysm is not identified. Sudden death caused by rupture of a cerebral aneurysm has not been previously described in an infant. This report outlines the investigation and autopsy findings in a 7-month-old infant who died unexpectedly as a result of rupture of a complex basilar artery aneurysm.
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2/59. Sudden death in a child due to an intrathoracic paraganglioma.

    A 12-year-old boy under treatment for asthma was found dead in his home. The autopsy revealed a large posterior mediastinal mass that completely compressed the upper lobe of the right lung and the associated airways. This mass extended from the right costovertebral sulcus into the thoracic spinal canal through the spinal foramen and compressed the spinal cord. It was located in the epidural space and was adherent to a nerve root. The histologic and immunocytochemical features were that of a paraganglioma. Although neurogenic tumors are the most common posterior mediastinal masses in the pediatric population, paragangliomas are rare, and spinal involvement has not been described in children. In addition, sudden death has not been reported in association with any of the 13 cases of posterior mediastinal paraganglioma described in the literature as involving the spine. This case illustrates an unusual cause of sudden death in a pediatric patient due to a benign neoplasm.
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3/59. Sudden death from massive pulmonary tumor embolism due to hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Massive pulmonary embolism in cancer patients can be due to detached thrombi or tumor. Pulmonary tumor embolism is often undiagnosed antemortem. We report a 52-year-old Chinese man admitted for management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Computerized tomography showed tumor involvement of hepatic vein and inferior vena cava. He died suddenly on the day of admission. At autopsy the main pulmonary arteries of both lungs were blocked by large tumor emboli, the immediate cause of death. Although rapid death in patients with HCC is usually caused by intraperitoneal hemorrhage from spontaneous rupture of tumor, massive pulmonary tumor embolism should also be considered in these patients, especially when antemortem evidence of hepatic vein and/or inferior vena cava invasion is present.
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4/59. Morphometric study of nucleus ambiguus in multiple system atrophy presenting with vocal cord abductor paralysis.

    AIM: To identify lesions responsible for vocal cord abductor paralysis (VCAP) in multiple system atrophy (MSA), we performed a morphometric study of the nucleus ambiguus which innervates the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. methods: Two autopsied cases of MSA presenting with VCAP and one control were examined. Both cases of MSA showed selective neurogenic atrophy of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles among the intrinsic laryngeal muscles, while no abnormalities were seen in the control. From a block of the medulla oblongata, sections 10 microm thickness were cut serially without spacing and stained with cresyl violet. The ambiguus neurons were counted in all the sections to make a histogram. RESULTS: In the control case, ambiguus neurons showed densely populated areas and sparsely populated areas alternately with significant difference in the mean neuronal density between two areas. In MSA, ambiguus neurons were significantly decreased in number at all levels. It indicates that the neurogenic atrophy of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle is derived from the neuronal loss of the nucleus ambiguus. CONCLUSION: Though it has still been controversial whether or not the ambiguus neurons are decreased in number in MSA with VCAP, we speculated possible reasons for the disagreement on the involvement of the nucleus ambiguus as follows: different mechanism of VCAP are playing role, and histometric data have been disturbed by factors such as split-cell counting error and marked variation in the distribution of the ambiguus neurons.
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5/59. Metastatic calcification of the cardiac conduction system with heart block: an under-reported entity in chronic renal failure patients.

    Systemic metastatic calcification is a common complication of chronic renal failure. Cardiac involvement is particularly ominous, especially when the cardiac conduction system is affected. Conduction defects, arrhythmias, and sudden death have all been reported with conduction system calcification; however, these are relatively under-reported or unrecognized causes of cardiac morbidity and mortality. We describe a 40-year-old man with von hippel-lindau disease who had been maintained on hemodialysis for two years following bilateral nephrectomies for renal cell carcinoma. The patient presented with symptomatic complete heart block that had progressed from Mobitz type I atrioventricular block. Two months later, while being internally paced, the patient died unexpectedly after a complicated hospital admission. Postmortem revealed extensive vascular, myocardial, and conduction system calcification. Conduction system calcification may cause sudden death in chronic renal failure patients during hospital admission, or unexpectedly while the patient is in the community. knowledge of this condition is necessary to detect it, as the conduction system is not routinely examined. A routine abbreviated conduction system examination is warranted for patients with systemic metastatic calcification, especially if they have sudden death or a known history of heart block.
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6/59. Unexpected cardiac arrest in patients after surgical correction of tetralogy of fallot.

    Four of 220 patients without bifasicular block (complete right bundle branch block and left anterior hemiblock) or transient complete heart block immediately after surgery had an unexpected cardiac arrest one to 15 years after satisfactory surgical repair of tetralogy of fallot. The postoperative electrocardiograms (ECG) revealed complete right bundle branch block in two patients and no intraventricle conduction abnormality in two patients. Each of the four patients had premature ventricular contractions on previous postoperative ECG. The cardiac arrest occurred during normal activity in three patients and mild exercise in one. Following the cardiac arrest, three patients died and one patient survived. Eighteen months before the cardiac arrest, the survivor had a stress test which revealed multifocal premature ventricular contractions with short bursts of ventricular tachycardia after exercise. This ventricular arrhythmia was suppressed with quinidine therapy. Although complete heart block cannot be excluded in these four patients, we reasoned that the cardiac arrests were probably preceded by ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Because of this experience, we believe that any patient who has had intraventricular surgery should be evaluated for ventricular arrhythmia. If frequent premature ventricular contractions or serious ventricular arrhythmias are documented, we seriously consider antiarrhythmic therapy in an attempt to prevent ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death.
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ranking = 408.70119981393
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7/59. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy complicated by severe bradycardias: a pedigree report.

    We describe four patients with nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) from an extended Chinese family. The patients had remarkably similar physical and echocardiographic findings including a harsh localized systolic murmur and apical left ventricular hypertrophy. All four had severe sinus bradycardia and atrial-ventricular conduction block (AVB) manifest by recurrent syncope. Two died suddenly due to bradycardia. Holter monitoring showed no tachycardias. Late potentials were not present. We conclude that this unusual form of HCM may be caused by a new and as yet unknown gene mutation.
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8/59. association of secundum atrial septal defect with abnormalities of atrioventricular conduction or left axis deviation. Genetic study of 10 families.

    A genetic analysis was made of 10 families in which the propositi had a secundum atrial septal defect associated with abnormal atrioventricular conduction (first, second, or third degree heart block) or unexplained left axis deviation or a combination of these conduction disturbances. Diagnostic information was available on 51 (81%) of the first degree relatives. Three of the families appeared to be examples of a new syndrome which, with variable expression, was inherited as a non-sex-linked autosomal dominant. The main features were a secundum atrial septal defect; disease of the conducting tissue, which in some cases was progressive; unexplained left axis deviation; and unexpected death. These families did not seem to be examples of the Holt-Oram syndrome, for the upper limbs were clinically and radiologically normal in the 19 members examined. The importance of recognizing this syndrome is the occurrence of progressive disease of the conducting tissue and the risk of sudden death. When, therefore, unexplained left axis deviation or prolonged atrioventricular conduction is found in association with a secundum atrial septal defect all available relatives should be examined. In the remaining seven families there was only one affected first degree relative out of 39 examined. He was the son of one of the propositi and had paroxysmal coronary sinus rhythm with an intact atrial septum.
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9/59. cocaine-induced channelopathies: emerging evidence on the multiple mechanisms of sudden death.

    Sudden death due to cocaine in the absence of myocardial infarction has been attributed to the precipitation of life-threatening arrhythmias not unlike that due to antiarrhythmic drugs. cocaine is a slow on-off sodium blocker and a fast on-off potassium blocker. Effects on repolarization are biphasic: At low concentrations, cocaine delays ventricular recovery, whereas at higher levels, cocaine hastens it. Two distinct clinical profiles emerge from case reports of electrocardiographically documented life-threatening arrhythmias attributed to cocaine. The first is monomorphic slow ventricular tachycardia or idioventricular rhythm that occurs in overdose situations and appears to reflect excessive sodium channel block; it may respond to sodium bicarbonate. The second is torsade de pointes that occurs in recreational users who have underlying risks for this tachycardia (such as fully or partially expressed congenital long qt syndrome) and reflects potassium channel blockade. These clinical observations can be explained by recent findings regarding the electrophysiologic effects of cocaine. Other patterns of severe arrhythmias due to cocaine may yet emerge.
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ranking = 272.46746654262
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10/59. Mobitz type I atrioventricular block in the ventricular specialized conduction system.

    A patient with a history of multiple syncopal episodes had electrocardiographic findings of Wenckebach type of second degree atrioventricular block and left bundle branch block. He was thought to have intermittent complete heart block. His bundle recordings demonstrated the unusual occurrence of Mobitz type I block localized to the ventricular specialized conduction system. Based on the findings of this case and those of previous case reports, it is recommended that electrophysiologic studies should be performed on all patients with Mobitz type I atrioventricular block who also have bundle branch block.
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