Cases reported "Death, Sudden"

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11/777. Esophagoaortic perforation by foreign body (coin) causing sudden death in a 3-year-old child.

    We report an extremely unusual consequence to foreign body ingestion in a case of a 3-year-old boy who died suddenly and at autopsy was found to have an esophagoaortic fistula. This fistula was caused by a coin which lodged posteriorly and eroded through the esophagus into the aorta. Serious complications following foreign body ingestion are rare and include stricture formation, intramural abscess, and the formation of fistula tracts. This case illustrates the potentially unpredictable behavior of impacted foreign bodies. The child's parents were initially suspected of child abuse based on the terminal hemoptysis.
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12/777. Sudden death in an infant caused by rupture of a basilar artery aneurysm.

    Ruptured aneurysms of the cerebrovasculature in infancy and early childhood, except for "giant" aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations, are rare. seizures, loss of consciousness, and apnea are the usual presenting signs in infancy; symptoms such as headache or visual disturbances and signs such as cranial nerve compression or meningeal irritation commonly found in older children or adults are absent in infants. However, the morphologic findings (i.e., subarachnoid and retinal hemorrhage, and occasionally subdural hemorrhage) may be mistaken for inflicted trauma, especially if the aneurysm is not identified. Sudden death caused by rupture of a cerebral aneurysm has not been previously described in an infant. This report outlines the investigation and autopsy findings in a 7-month-old infant who died unexpectedly as a result of rupture of a complex basilar artery aneurysm.
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13/777. Sudden unexpected death associated with HHV-6 in an adolescent with tuberous sclerosis.

    A 14-year-old female with tuberous sclerosis and history of seizures was found dead in bed at home 3 days after she had been assessed as doing well at a routine neurology clinic appointment. She had been treated with an antiepileptic drug, felbamate, for 36 months and had been seizure-free except for one seizure episode 5 months before death. Postmortem examination revealed cerebral edema, with uncal and tonsillar herniation, and pulmonary edema, consistent with seizure-induced apnea. Multiple microglial nodules with mature perivascular lymphocytic cuffing and diffuse infiltrates were identified around subependymal tuberous sclerosis giant cell nodules. Immunostaining and electron microscopy revealed human herpesvirus-6-infected macrophages, astrocytes, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells in the subependymal tuberous sclerosis lesions and choroid plexus. Subacute human herpesvirus-6 encephalitis is postulated to have precipitated a seizure and thus sudden unexpected death in epilepsy in this otherwise stable adolescent patient.
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14/777. Sudden death with malignant hemangioendothelioma originating in the pericardium--a case report.

    The authors report a rare case of a malignant hemangioendothelioma (MH) originating in the pericardium. In this case, a metastatic skin lesion was found first, and subsequently the existence of a primary cardiac lesion was confirmed. Generally, primary cardiac tumors grow slowly, and the prognosis of MH is relatively good. In this case, however, the patient died suddenly during the creation of a pericardial window for drainage. An autopsy showed that the MH originated from a pericardial lesion in the right atrium.
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15/777. Sudden natural death 'at the wheel': a retrospective study over a 15-year time period (1982-1996).

    In order to investigate the incidence and implications of sudden natural death at the wheel, a retrospective study was carried out over a 15-year time period ranging from 1982 until 1996. During this time period 147 drivers of motor vehicles were found out of 34,554 cases examined at the Institute of Legal medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, germany. There were 13 females and 134 males and the mean age was 56.8 years (range 20-86 years). The main cause of death was ischemic heart disease which was found in 113 cases. There were mainly minor injuries to the driver, or to other passengers, or to other road users and only minor property damage. Our study confirms previous investigations that sudden natural death at the wheel is a rare event in proportion to unnatural death at the wheel and is not a substantial threat to other road users. Despite existing guidelines for granting a driving licence, medical screening to exclude high risk patients from driving cannot prevent the occurrence of sudden natural death at the wheel.
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16/777. Rapid respiratory deterioration and sudden death due to disseminated cryptococcosis in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    We report the case of a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) whose death occurred within 30 hours of hospitalization due to disseminated cryptococcosis, manifested by dizziness, cough, and shortness of breath. The clinical picture was consistent with pneumocystis pneumonia, and antibiotic therapy with corticosteroids was initiated. Despite initial improvement, the patient's condition quickly worsened, resulting in cardiorespiratory arrest and death. autopsy revealed cryptococci in several organs. Sudden, rapid deterioration and death are rare consequences of disseminated cryptococcosis, and steroids may worsen the course of the disease. On the basis of this case and review of similar cases in the literature, we recommend early consideration of disseminated cryptococcosis in AIDS patients with pneumonia. early diagnosis and appropriate therapy are essential to reduce morbidity and mortality.
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17/777. Ballooning posterior leaflet syndrome: syncope and sudden death.

    Two of four patients with ballooning posterior leaflet syndrome died suddenly and the remaining two developed a near-fatal arrhythmia. These four patients demonstrate the potentially fatal nature of the ballooning posterior leaflet syndrome.
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18/777. Hydrocution in a case of Coxsackie virus infection.

    An apparently healthy 7-year-old boy attempted to demonstrate his ability to dive into a whirlpool but was retrieved from the water in a state of unconsciousness after several minutes. resuscitation was unsuccessful. No characteristic signs of drowning were found at the autopsy but examination of the lymph nodes and the cardiac muscle indicated a pre-existent infection. The histological examination revealed a slight degree of predominantly lymphocytic infiltration of the cardiac muscle. IgM antibodies against Coxsackie virus were detected in the serum sample by means of ELISA. The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) performed on an extract of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cardiac muscle tissue revealed a dna sequence specific for Coxsackie B3 virus. Therefore, cardiac failure was due to a myocardial virus infection and the additional strain caused by diving. This case report emphasizes the importance of modern molecular biological methods in cases of sudden death including death by hydrocution.
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19/777. achondroplasia and cervicomedullary compression: prospective evaluation and surgical treatment.

    The association between sudden death and cervicomedullary compression in infants with achondroplasia has been well described. Prospective clinical and imaging evaluations have been recommended to identify those infants with achondroplasia who are at risk of dying suddenly from respiratory arrest secondary to unrecognized cervicomedullary compression. Since 1988, we have prospectively evaluated 11 infants (average age 13 weeks) with achondroplasia who were asymptomatic for cervicomedullary compression on initial clinical evaluation. Craniocervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings included narrowing of the foramen magnum, effacement of the subarachnoid spaces at the cervicomedullary junction, abnormal intrinsic cord signal intensity and mild to moderate ventriculomegaly. Two patients with severe cord compression underwent immediate decompression. Two patients developed opisthotonic posturing within 3 months of evaluation and underwent foramen magnum decompression, including suboccipital craniectomy and atlantal laminectomy. Surgery in all cases revealed forward extension of the squamous portion of the occipital bone, thickened posterior rim of the foramen magnum and a dense fibrotic epidural band. There were no complications from surgery. Seven patients did not require surgery and were followed closely. All 11 patients remain asymptomatic at follow-up (mean 4.6 years; range 16 months to 7.3 years), and no patient has required a diversionary shunt procedure. The results of this prospective study confirm that early clinical and MRI evaluations are necessary to determine whether infants with achondroplasia have cervicomedullary compression. With early recognition, an immediate decompression can be performed safely to avoid serious complications associated with cervicomedullary compression, including sudden death. copyright copyright 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel
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20/777. A survivor of near sudden death caused by giant left atrial myxoma.

    Sudden hemodynamic collapse occurred in a 20-year-old man after an Emergency Department visit with a complaint of dizziness and chest discomfort. A left atrial myxoma was demonstrated by echocardiography. resuscitation procedures followed by surgical repair resulted in an excellent outcome. Although sudden death is a serious manifestation of cardiac myxoma, reports of survivors of near sudden death caused by this tumor have been rare.
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