Cases reported "Deglutition Disorders"

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1/89. Cinefluorography in the diagnosis of pharyngeal palsies.

    (1) The aetiology of dysphagia may be difficult to diagnose when it presents without clinical signs or an associated clinical syndrome. (2) Pharyngeal palsies present in acute and chronic forms. (3) Cinefluorographic techniques are helpful in making an objective diagnosis of pharyngeal palsy. (4) Advice may be given to the patient on head and neck positions during swallowing that is based on the findings of the cinefluorographic examination, in order to alleviate symptoms. (5) Good fluoroscopy, preferably with video-tape recording facilities may be perfectly adequate provided that the diagnosis is considered at that time.
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2/89. hypoglossal nerve injury as a complication of anterior surgery to the upper cervical spine.

    Injury to the hypoglossal nerve is a recognised complication after soft tissue surgery in the upper part of the anterior aspect of the neck, e.g. branchial cyst or carotid body tumour excision. However, this complication has been rarely reported following surgery of the upper cervical spine. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman with tuberculosis of C2-3. She underwent corpectomy and fusion from C2 to C5 using iliac crest bone graft, through a left anterior oblique incision. She developed hypoglossal nerve palsy in the immediate postoperative period, with dysphagia and dysarthria. It was thought to be due to traction neurapraxia with possible spontaneous recovery. At 18 months' follow-up, she had a solid fusion and tuberculosis was controlled. The hypoglossal palsy persisted, although with minimal functional disability. The only other reported case of hypoglossal lesion after anterior cervical spine surgery in the literature also failed to recover. It is concluded that hypoglossal nerve palsy following anterior cervical spine surgery is unlikely to recover spontaneously and it should be carefully identified.
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3/89. An unusual complication of Cloward's procedure presenting to the otolaryngologist.

    We present the case of a 51-year-old lady who developed a CSF leak following a Cloward's procedure (anterior cervical surgery with fusion), which settled with conservative management. Two months following the surgery she was assessed by an otolaryngologist for persistent dysphagia and a swelling in the anterior triangle of her neck. A computed tomography (CT) scan identified a fluid-filled mass displacing the trachea and communicating with the anterior cervical vertebrae, thus confirming the persistence of a CSF leak.
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4/89. Necrotizing fasciitis of the pharynx following adenotonsillectomy.

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare clinical entity in the head and neck region. We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis following adenotonsillectomy in a previously healthy 2-year-old girl. The child presented in a septic state with impending airway compromise. Computed tomography (CT) showed massive soft tissue widening with air in the retropharyngeal, parapharyngeal and retromandibular spaces. Intraoperative exploration showed necrosis of the posterior pharyngeal wall from the skull base to the cricoid, with extension into the parapharyngeal and retropharyngeal spaces. Cultures from the debrided tissues grew two aerobes and three anaerobes. Management involved airway support, surgical debridement, broad spectrum antibiotic coverage and nutritional support. The patient ultimately developed nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal stenosis requiring tracheostomy and gastrostomy tube placement. This case report highlights an extremely rare complication of adenotonsillectomy.
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5/89. Unusually aggressive rectal carcinoid metastasizing to larynx, pancreas, adrenal glands, and brain.

    Rectal carcinoids are slow-growing tumors. They metastasize when their size is more than 2 cm. Common sites of metastasis are the liver, lungs, and bones. Metastases to thyroid, pancreas, kidneys, adrenal glands, pituitary glands, posterior fossa, and spleen are very rare. We present the case of a 79-year-old white man with dysphagia and left vocal cord paralysis from a rapidly growing mass in his neck. Needle biopsy suggested thyroid anaplastic carcinoma, and the patient underwent total laryngectomy, total thyroidectomy, and left radical neck dissection. pathology showed undifferentiated carcinoid of the larynx. biopsy of a rectal mass suggested poorly differentiated carcinoma. Postoperatively the patient developed cardiac arrhythmias and died after 5 weeks. autopsy showed a 5-cm carcinoid of the rectum with extensive vascular invasion extending into the perirectal fat. There was metastatic disease to both lungs, liver, pancreas, both adrenal glands, peritoneum, subcutaneous tissues of thorax and abdomen, ribs, vertebrae, skull, and the leptomeninges of the cerebrum. Rectal carcinoids may present a variable histologic picture. Poorly differentiated tumors can present with widespread metastases and have poor prognosis. Extensive surgery may not improve the survival of patients with this pattern of unusually aggressive carcinoid.
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6/89. actinomycosis of the post-cricoid space: an unusual cause of dysphagia.

    Cervicofacial actinomycosis is known to affect many soft tissues and bony structures in the head and neck. However to the authors' knowledge, actinomycosis of the post-cricoid region has not been previously reported. A case of a 74-year-old male who developed actinomycosis of the post-cricoid region after radiotherapy for a laryngeal carcinoma is presented. actinomycosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dysphagia following radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, as early treatment is likely to result in a favourable outcome.
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7/89. CT findings associated with Eagle syndrome.

    Eagle syndrome is an aggregate of symptoms caused by an elongated ossified styloid process, the cause of which remains unclear. This is a rare finding that often goes undetected in the absence of radiographic studies. In this case, we present the diagnostic CT and lateral view plain film radiography findings of a 39-year-old woman with clinical evidence of Eagle syndrome. Eagle syndrome can occur unilaterally or bilaterally and most frequently results in symptoms of dysphagia, headache, pain on rotation of the neck, pain on extension of the tongue, change in voice, and a sensation of hypersalivation (1, 2). We present rare and diagnostic radiographic evidence of this on both plain film radiographs and CT scans. Although well documented in otolaryngology literature and dentistry literature, this syndrome has not been reported in the radiology literature.
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8/89. Swallowing problems in post irradiated NPC patients.

    We present three patients with Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) developing swallowing problems after radiotherapy as the primary modality of treatment. All patients had advanced stage NPC presenting with enlarged neck nodes and underwent radical external beam radiotherapy. All three patients had both CN X and CN XII palsies and had difficulty in both the oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing. None of them has any clinical or radiological evidence of local recurrence in the post nasal space and neck or metastasis to the skull base. One patient underwent cricopharyngeal myotomy with epiglottopexy and hyoid suspension which failed and subsequently underwent laryngectomy. Another patient had medialisation thyroplasty and the third underwent a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG).
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9/89. Lower lip-lifting brace for bilateral facial nerve palsy: a case report.

    A 55-year-old man suffered from pontine hemorrhage 5 years before he visited our outpatient clinic with complaints of gait disturbance and dysphagia. At the first examination, his inability to close his mouth, eyes, and lower lip led to the diagnosis of facial diplegia. He was instructed to wear a gauze surgical mask and to use artificial saliva for his xerostomia. A videofluorogram of his swallowing excluded aspiration but revealed dysphagia attributable to neck hyperextension arising from efforts to prevent food spilling from his mouth. We prescribed a brace to lift his lower lip as a treatment of his dysphagia. This brace covered his chin to support his lower lip. Our brace resulted in improved function; liquids no longer leaked from his mouth and because the lip elevation eliminated his xerostomia, he no longer required artificial saliva or the gauze mask.
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keywords = neck
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10/89. An unusual case of surgical emphysema in the neck following sport injury.

    Surgical emphysema of the neck following sport injury without direct trauma to the neck is uncommon. We report a case of a flexion-hyperextension injury causing an air leak to the soft tissues of the neck. diagnosis, management and potential mechanisms are discussed. patients may initially present with minimal symptoms, but their condition may deteriorate rapidly or insidiously. In the absence of respiratory compromise, conservative management is appropriate.
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ranking = 7
keywords = neck
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