Cases reported "Deglutition Disorders"

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11/128. Double aortic arch: diagnosis missed for 29 years.

    Double aortic arch is a rare vascular anomaly which causes tracheal and esophageal compression usually in the first months of life. Typical symptoms in the early childhood should lead to prompt diagnosis and surgical treatment of this malformation. In adults this anomaly is extremely rare. A case of a severely 29-year-old symptomatic woman is presented. Despite characteristic symptoms, the diagnosis was missed during childhood. The importance of different diagnostic procedures and operative therapy is discussed. Preoperative angiography can be replaced by the less invasive magnetic imaging and computed tomography. Surgical operation should also be performed in oligosymptomatic patients to prevent late complications.
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12/128. Simultaneous cervical diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament resulting in dysphagia or myelopathy in two geriatric North Americans.

    BACKGROUND: Cervical diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) rarely coexist in the North American population. Here, different surgical strategies were used to manage simultaneous DISH and OPLL resulting in dysphagia or myelopathy in two geriatric patients. methods: A 74-year-old male with esophageal compression and dysphagia attributed to DISH, and cord compression with myelopathy due to OPLL, was treated with a cervical laminectomy followed by anterior DISH resection. On the other hand, an 80-year-old male with asymptomatic DISH but moderate myelopathy (Nurick Grade III) secondary to OPLL required only a cervical laminectomy. RESULTS: In the first patient, dysphagia resolved within 3 months of surgery, while in the second individual, myelopathy improved to Nurick Grade I (mild myelopathy) within 6 months postoperatively. Improvement in both patients was maintained 1 year after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: While DISH and OPLL may coexist in geriatric patients, only those with dysphagia should undergo DISH resection, while others demonstrating myelopathy should have laminectomy alone.
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13/128. Smooth muscle tumors of the esophagus: clinicopathological findings in six patients.

    Preoperatively, it is difficult to discriminate leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma of the esophagus, which are rare smooth muscle tumors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological findings of this unusual lesion. A search of the surgery archives of the Toyama Prefectural Central Hospital of pathology revealed six cases of esophageal smooth muscle tumors. Clinicopathological findings were reviewed retrospectively. Only three patients (50%) presented with dysphagia, and the remaining three patients were asymptomatic. These patients underwent surgical excision. Histologically four of the six tumors were leiomyomas, and the other two tumors were leiomyosarcomas. Two tumors were in the upper to middle esophagus, and the remaining four were in the distal esophagus. On endoscopic examination, all tumors were noted to be polypoid. The two leiomyosarcomas measured over 5 cm and the four leiomyomas less than 4 cm. Neither ulceration nor necrosis proved to be of use in discriminating leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma. The two patients with leiomyosarcoma died of liver metastasis 10 and 22 months after the treatment. patients with leiomyosarcoma presented with distant metastasis and/or recurrence, with hematogeneous metastasis being the predominant type of recurrence.
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14/128. Esophageal tubular duplication complicated with intraluminal hematoma: a case report.

    Esophageal tubular duplication is a rare congenital anomaly. We experienced a patient with esophageal tubular duplication who presented with a swallowing difficulty which was aggravated after a gastrofiberscopic examination. Preoperative diagnosis was intramural hematoma of the esophagus due to trauma caused by endoscopy. Surgical specimen revealed that hematoma was located within a duplicated lumen of the esophagus. The radiologic and endoscopic findings are discussed in correlation with its pathology.
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15/128. An operation for the treatment of intractable peptic stricture of the esophagus.

    The current management of severe strictures of the esophagus resulting from reflux esophagitis is unsatisfactory. A new operation comprising esophagoplasty and intrathoracic fundoplication is described. This preliminary report records the results of this operation in 10 patients. There was one operative death. Of the nine survivors, followed for six months to three years, seven are completely free of symptoms. The remaining two have mild residual symptoms, but no dysphagia.
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16/128. Unusually aggressive rectal carcinoid metastasizing to larynx, pancreas, adrenal glands, and brain.

    Rectal carcinoids are slow-growing tumors. They metastasize when their size is more than 2 cm. Common sites of metastasis are the liver, lungs, and bones. Metastases to thyroid, pancreas, kidneys, adrenal glands, pituitary glands, posterior fossa, and spleen are very rare. We present the case of a 79-year-old white man with dysphagia and left vocal cord paralysis from a rapidly growing mass in his neck. Needle biopsy suggested thyroid anaplastic carcinoma, and the patient underwent total laryngectomy, total thyroidectomy, and left radical neck dissection. pathology showed undifferentiated carcinoid of the larynx. biopsy of a rectal mass suggested poorly differentiated carcinoma. Postoperatively the patient developed cardiac arrhythmias and died after 5 weeks. autopsy showed a 5-cm carcinoid of the rectum with extensive vascular invasion extending into the perirectal fat. There was metastatic disease to both lungs, liver, pancreas, both adrenal glands, peritoneum, subcutaneous tissues of thorax and abdomen, ribs, vertebrae, skull, and the leptomeninges of the cerebrum. Rectal carcinoids may present a variable histologic picture. Poorly differentiated tumors can present with widespread metastases and have poor prognosis. Extensive surgery may not improve the survival of patients with this pattern of unusually aggressive carcinoid.
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17/128. Dysphagia lusoria: a case study.

    Dysphagia lusoria is described in the literature as difficulty swallowing because of a "jest of nature." The "jest of nature" is a birth defect encompassing any aortic root vascular anomaly that causes esophageal dysphagia. persons with dysphagia lusoria can be categorized according to their specific subclavian anomaly (ie, depending on the presence of an aneurysm, occlusive disease, or esophageal compression). All patients with this anomaly have an aberrant subclavian artery in a transposed position that courses posterior to the esophagus. The operative approach to repair this condition has been controversial. An extrathoracic approach is documented as superior to a repair involving thoracotomy because there is decreased rate of complications that may be associated with a thoracotomy and greater visibility of the subclavian and carotid artery. This case study describes a 25-year-old woman with dysphagia lusoria related to an aberrant right subclavian artery. The report includes a literature review and describes the perioperative approach and nursing care. The use of the preadmission and same-day admission services are supported as is an extrathoracic surgical approach. At follow-up this patient reported no symptoms of dysphagia and showed no evidence of esophageal compression confirming that persons with symptomatic dysphagia lusoria can be managed with positive long-term results.
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18/128. Laparoscopic approach for esophageal achalasia with epiphrenic diverticulum.

    We report the case of a 65-year-old woman with a 10-year history of dysphagia, regurgitation, cough, and 10-kg weight loss caused by an epiphrenic diverticulum associated with esophageal achalasia managed with a laparoscopic approach. A preoperative barium swallow showed a dilated sigmoid esophagus with a 6-cm epiphrenic diverticulum. Esophageal manometry confirmed the absence of peristalsis in the esophageal body. We performed a laparoscopic diverticulectomy and a 7-cm distal esophageal myotomy with a Dor fundoplication. The postoperative course was uneventful. On the third postoperative day a barium swallow showed no leak, and the patient started oral intake. She was discharged home 5 days after the operation free of symptoms and tolerating a soft diet. Sixteen months after surgery, she was asymptomatic and had gained 8 kg. A barium swallow showed a normal-size esophagus with regular emptying. We reaffirm the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of the laparoscopic diverticulectomy and distal myotomy with Dor fundoplication to manage epiphrenic diverticula resulting from esophageal achalasia.
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19/128. Spindle cell lipoma of the hypopharynx.

    larynx and hypopharynx lipomas are reported to account for approximately 0.6% of benign laryngeal neoplasms. Spindle cell lipoma is a histologically distinct variant characterized by mature adipocytes mixed with collagen-forming spindle cells; only one case of spindle cell lipoma of the larynx has been previously reported. We here describe a new case of spindle cell lipoma of the pyriform sinus successfully treated by means of endoscopic surgical excision. A 77-year-old woman with a 40-year history of dysphagia reported that the condition had markedly worsened over the three years before she came to us. She had difficulty swallowing even semisolid food and she experienced occasional nasal regurgitation of liquid or solid food. Flexible videolaryngoscopy showed a very large mass, covered by normal mucosa that almost totally occupied the right pyriform sinus and was apparently attached to the right arytenoid. Functional endoscopic study and videofluoroscopy of swallowing showed that the bolus progressed exclusively in the left pyriform sinus, with postdeglutitory pooling in the right pyriform sinus and a reflux toward the valleculae during consecutive deglutitions. Computed tomography demonstrated that the hypopharyngeal mass had low attenuation values and negative densitometry. The entire mass was surgically removed during suspension microlaryngoscopy. The histological sections showed mature adipocytes mixed with small and slender spindle cells. Postoperative endoscopic and videofluorosocpic deglutition studies revealed the recovery of normal swallowing. This case indicates that hypopharyngeal lipomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of slowly occurring swallowing impairments.
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20/128. lingual thyroid: iodine 131: a viable treatment modality revisited.

    PURPOSE: lingual thyroid has a reported incidence between 1:10 and 1:100,000. When symptomatic, patients may present with dysphagia, choking, and/or dyspnea. Current surgical treatment options range from tumor extirpation or transposition to excision and reimplantation. Tracheotomies are often performed postoperatively for reliable airway control. iodine 131 (131I) has not been a popular modality of treatment for lingual thyroid because of theoretical fears of increased airway obstruction from thyroiditis. We believe that these fears were not substantiated, and that symptomatic patients needed a reliable, nonsurgical treatment option. Therefore, our goal was to further investigate the use of 131I for the treatment of symptomatic lingual thyroid. patients AND methods: A 6-year retrospective chart review was performed. From 1994 to 2000, 2 patients with symptomatic lingual thyroid presented to the arkansas Cancer research Center head and neck Oncology clinic, University of arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR. patients underwent pretreatment computed tomography, and iodine 123 scans. They then received 1 oral dose of 131I. Doses ranged from 30 to 85 mCi. patients were then followed daily for signs of airway compromise. RESULTS: Complete resolution of symptoms was seen 2 months after treatment. patients did not complain of any increased airway compromise during treatment initiation. patients remain symptom-free and are maintained on thyroid hormone replacement. CONCLUSIONS: iodine 131 ablation of lingual thyroid is a safe and effective treatment in symptomatic patients and should be included in the algorithm when formulating a treatment plan.
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