Cases reported "Dehydration"

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1/21. A dentoalveolar abscess in a pediatric patient with ketoacidosis caused by occult diabetes mellitus: a case report.

    oral health professionals are frequently asked to evaluate patients with routine odontogenic infections. These patients can sometimes present with systemic signs and symptoms, including fever, malaise, tachycardia, and dehydration. It is important for the astute clinician to understand the possible associated systemic diseases that may be contributing to odontogenic infections. We present here an interesting case of a pediatric patient with a routine canine space infection who exhibited classic clinical signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = diabetes
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2/21. Bilateral optic atrophy following diabetic ketoacidosis.

    diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can result in neuropathic abnormalities of the somatic and the autonomous nervous systems. We report the case of a 50-year-old man with Type 1 diabetes of 20-year duration who after severe DKA lost vision in his right eye and only retain partial vision in his left. This case demonstrates that optic neural tissue is vulnerable to haemodynamic and metabolic complications of DKA.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = diabetes
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3/21. infant hypernatremia: a case report.

    A 7-month-old infant presented to the emergency department with diarrhea, vomiting, and decreased activity. The infant was febrile, tachycardic, tachypneic, lethargic, and had a prolonged capillary refill. Initial serum sodium was 197 mmol/L. Ultimately, the infant was diagnosed with central diabetes insipidus complicated by severe dehydration secondary to rotavirus infection. A brief review of infant hypernatremia and its evaluation and treatment in the emergency department follows.
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ranking = 9.5154722607282
keywords = diabetes insipidus, insipidus, diabetes
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4/21. Recurrent hyperosmolar nonketotic episodes in a young diabetic.

    A 15-month-old girl was successfully treated for substantial hyperosmolarity in the absence of ketosis at the onset of permanent insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus. hypotonic solutions containing small amounts of glucose and subcutaneous administration of low doses of insulin were empolyed. potassium was added to the hydrating solutions during the second hour of treatment. In the next three months, two recurrences of this syndrome were verified and successfully treated in a similar manner.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = diabetes
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5/21. peritoneal dialysis in an infant with type 1 diabetes and hyperosmolar coma.

    Hyperosmolar coma which is characterized by severe hyperglycemia in absence of chetosis is very rare in pediatric age with only 11 cases reported in the literature. The outcome of the condition is usually poor with mental retardation being the most common event. Here a case of hyperosmolar coma is described in a female of three months of age who was treated with peritoneal dialysis 11 hours after admittance to hospital. This female patient has been receiving insulin from three months of age and today at the age of 10 years she leads a normal life despite being on insulin therapy. A very low level of c-peptide (<0.3 ng/ml) clearly confirms she is affected by Type 1 diabetes. To our knowledge this is the first case report of hyperosmolar coma in a neonate with Type 1 diabetes who survived this condition without late neurological consequences.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = diabetes
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6/21. A case of hypopituitarism with diabetes insipidus and loss of thirst. role of antidiuretic hormone and angiotensin ii in the control of urine flow and osmolality.

    A 20-yr-old male was found to have diabetes insipidus is association with panhypopituitarism but without any focal neurological lesion being identified. He was initially treated with steroid supplements, the features of diabetes insipidus being controlled with a thiazide diuretic. Eighteen months later the patient lost thirst sensation and stopped treatment, subsequently being re-admitted with severe dehydration, oliguria and focal neurological signs. Further investigation, including brain biopsy, confirmed the presence of an atypical pinealoma which was considered inoperable. Measurements of plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and angiotensin ii (AII) concentrations during the severe dehydration showed very high levels of AII, but inappropriately low plasma ADH levels for the severity of dehydration. We consider that the evidence obtained from this case supports the view that the oliguria with hypertonic urine present during severe dehydration was due to a direct renal action of the very high AII levels, possibly supplemented by the residual ADH secretion.
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ranking = 57.092833564369
keywords = diabetes insipidus, insipidus, diabetes
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7/21. Fatality from olanzapine induced hyperglycemia.

    A case history of a 31-year-old male schizophrenic patient is presented. The man was treated with olanzapine for three weeks before he died. After one week on a 10 mg daily dose of olanzapine, his fasting blood glucose was elevated to 11.3 mmol/L (203 mg/dL). In order to treat more aggressively his psychosis, the olanzapine dose was raised to 20 mg daily resulting in his fasting blood glucose climbing to 15.8 mmol/l (284 mg/dL). On the days preceding his death, he became progressively weaker, and developed polydipsia with polyuria. He had no personal or family history of diabetes mellitus and he was on no other medication at the time of his death. Postmortem blood, vitreous humor, and urine glucose concentrations were 53 mmol/L (954 mg/dL), 49 mmol/L (882 mg/dL), and 329 mmol/L (5922 mg/dL), respectively. Drug screen on urine and blood indicated only a small amount or olanzapine and no alcohols. Peripheral blood olanzapine concentration was within therapeutic limits, 45 ng/mL. Analysis of vitreous humor and urine revealed severe dehydration with small amounts of ketones. death was attributed to hyperosmolar nonketotic diabetic coma, and olanzapine was felt most likely to be the cause. Another atypical neuroleptic, clozapine, has also been associated with the development and exacerbation of diabetes mellitus or diabetic ketoacidosis. We recommend including vitreous glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate analysis as part of postmortem toxicology work up when the drug screen reveals the presence of either olanzapine or clozapine.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = diabetes
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8/21. Hypodipsia-hypernatremia syndrome associated with holoprosencephaly in a child: a case report.

    We report a child with diabetes insipidus and hypodipsia associated with holoprosencephaly. A two-year-old girl with the history of several admittances to hospital during and after the newborn period with hypernatremic dehydration, acute renal failure and convulsions is presented. The patient had hypodipsia, hypernatremia, microcephaly, failure to thrive, and unilateral cleft lip and palate. magnetic resonance imaging revealed lobar type holoprosencephaly. Increased plasma osmolality and decreased urinary osmolality were detected. Her urine ADH level was 10 ng/day. plasma osmolality levels returned to normal after hydration and administration of a vasopressin analogue. These findings suggest that in children with hypernatremia-hypodipsia syndrome, the possibility of cerebral malformations should always be kept in mind.
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ranking = 9.5154722607282
keywords = diabetes insipidus, insipidus, diabetes
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9/21. Cushing's syndrome from ectopic production of corticotropin by a metastatic gastrinoma.

    OBJECTIVE: To present a case of a young woman with new-onset diabetes mellitus resistant to insulin attributable to Cushing's syndrome caused by ectopic production of corticotropin by a metastatic gastrinoma. methods: We summarize the clinical presentation and the pertinent laboratory values in a patient with Cushing's syndrome. A review of the literature regarding ectopic production of corticotropin by gastrinomas is also presented. RESULTS: A 26-year-old woman with dehydration, severe hyperglycemia, and hypokalemia was seen in consultation. The patient required large doses of insulin to control plasma glucose, and further work-up confirmed the presence of Cushing's syndrome caused by ectopic production of corticotropin from a metastatic gastrinoma. CONCLUSION: This case is unusual in that the patient was relatively young and the clinical presentation of Cushing's syndrome was dominated by uncontrolled diabetes, insulin resistance, and hypokalemia. At the time of this diagnosis, the patient already had evidence of multiple liver metastatic lesions from a pancreatic gastrinoma. The rapid occurrence of difficult-to-treat diabetes and hypokalemia should raise the suspicion of Cushing's syndrome from ectopic production of corticotropin. In fact, patients with metastatic pancreatic tumors and poorly controlled diabetes with hypokalemia should undergo evaluation for Cushing's syndrome, even in the absence of the typical stigmas, because of rapid development of the disease and high levels of corticotropin.
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ranking = 1
keywords = diabetes
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10/21. Myelodysplastic syndrome with central diabetes insipidus manifesting hypodipsic hypernatremia and dehydration.

    Central diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare but recognized complication of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that is caused by leukemic infiltration to the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system. In rare patients in whom a wide region of the hypothalamus is involved, central DI results in hypodipsic hypernatremia and dehydration. Typical DI symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, and marked thirst are concealed in these cases, because the hypothalamic "thirst center" cannot send thirst stimuli to the cerebral cortex. Herein we describe a patient with MDS developing into AML, who presented with hypodipsic hypernatremia and dehydration. A diagnosis of central DI was made on the ground of a low level of serum anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) despite high serum osmolality. A magnetic resonance imaging study revealed attenuation of a physiological "bright spot" of the neurohypophysis. An induction course chemotherapy including regular-dose cytarabine and daunorubicin produced a rapid improvement of hypernatremia. The bone marrow aspirate after two courses of chemotherapy showed complete remission. At that point, ADH release and the "bright spot" were recovered. In order to correctly diagnose central DI in association with hematological malignancies, we should not overlook this atypical type of DI.
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ranking = 47.577361303641
keywords = diabetes insipidus, insipidus, diabetes
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