Cases reported "Dementia, Vascular"

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11/128. Treatment of impulsivity and aggression in a patient with vascular dementia.

    This case illustrates how treatment with divalproex sodium, an agent approved for use as an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer, led to a reduction in overt aggression, diminished impulsivity, and improved functional status in a patient with vascular dementia. Improved receptivity to care and reduced hostility also led to an increased quality of life for the family caregivers. The daughter also benefited greatly from participation in a family support group. ( info)

12/128. depression in late life, cognitive decline and white matter pathology in two clinico-pathologically investigated cases.

    case reports: We report two cases of late life depression who became progressively more resistant to treatment, developed cognitive impairment, and began to exhibit neurological abnormalities and evidence of vascular disease. A discussion of the clinical features of the cases is accompanied by reports of neuropathology and neuroimaging findings. Extensive white matter lesions were present on computed tomography in both patients, and basal ganglia infarcts were seen in one. Neuropathology revealed evidence of cerebral atrophy, demyelination and white matter lesions in addition to cerebrovascular and generalised vascular disease. Neither patient exhibited Alzheimer pathology outwith the norm for their age. We believe this to be the first report of neuropathological findings in depression with white matter changes. literature review: The pathological basis of white matter lesions and their relationship to depression, its age of onset and clinical features is addressed in relation to the cases described. Pathological investigation of white matter lesions has not previously been carried out in depression and hypotheses regarding their nature in this illness are based on extrapolation from research in a variety of other disorders. The association of depression with vascular risk factors is considered, as is the relationship between depression and cognitive deficits. There is a need for further investigation in this area. ( info)

13/128. Gabapentin for treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    OBJECTIVE: To report the use of gabapentin in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and to review the available literature relating to the use of gabapentin in this population. CASE SUMMARY: A 62-year-old white man was admitted to the hospital due to a worsening state of confusion, anxiety, depressed mood, insomnia, and verbal and physical aggressiveness toward his wife. He had a past medical history significant for vascular dementia. He had been intolerant of or had failed to respond to numerous antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and neuroleptics. The addition of gabapentin to the patient's medication regimen resulted in reduced agitation, sexual inappropriateness, and lability. He was discharged to his home on a dose of gabapentin 300 mg three times daily. DATA SOURCES: A medline search (1966-August 2000) was performed to identify case reports and clinical trials discussing the efficacy of gabapentin in the treatment of BPSD. DISCUSSION: Gabapentin, like other anticonvulsants, has been used with success in several psychiatric illnesses. Available literature indicates that the drug may have some efficacy in the treatment of BPSD. It has a favorable adverse effect profile in the elderly, which makes it an attractive altemative to standard therapies, including benzodiazepines and neuroleptics. Optimal dosing remains unclear. CONCLUSIONS: This case suggests that gabapentin is a reasonable alternative therapy for patients whose behavioral symptoms do not respond to conventional agents. ( info)

14/128. frontal lobe dementia with novel tauopathy: sporadic multiple system tauopathy with dementia.

    We present a novel tauopathy in a patient with a 10-yr history of progressive frontal lobe dementia and a negative family history. autopsy revealed mild atrophy of frontal and parietal lobes and severe atrophy of the temporal lobes. There were occasional filamentous tau-positive inclusions, but more interesting were numerous distinctive globular neuronal and glial tau-positive inclusions in both gray and white matter of the neocortex. Affected subcortical regions included substantia nigra, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and cerebellar dentate nucleus, in a distribution similar to progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), but without significant accompanying neuronal loss or gliosis. Predominantly straight filaments were detected by electron microscopy (EM), while other inclusions were similar to fingerprint bodies. No twisted ribbons were detected. Immuno-EM studies revealed that only the filamentous inclusions were composed of tau. immunoblotting of sarkosyl-insoluble tau revealed 2 major bands of 64 and 68 kDa. Blotting analysis after dephosphorylation revealed predominantly 4-repeat tau. sequence analysis of tau revealed that there were no mutations in either exons 9-13 or the adjacent intronic sequences. The unique cortical tau pathology in this case of sporadic multiple system tauopathy with dementia adds a new pathologic profile to the spectrum of tauopathies. ( info)

15/128. Severe metabolic abnormalities in the white matter of patients with vacuolating megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts. A proton MR spectroscopic imaging study.

    Vacuolating megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy (VML) with subcortical cysts is a neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by megalencephaly with onset in the first year of life, progressive ataxia, spasticity and relatively spared cognitive function. Conventional MRI findings consist of diffusely abnormal cerebral white matter with subcortical cysts. Recent single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy studies have shown mild metabolic abnormalities in the white matter. We report here a combined proton MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging (1H-MRSI) study on 2 new, unrelated patients with this rare disorder. 1H-MRSI examinations, which can provide simultaneously metabolic information from many different brain regions, showed inhomogeneous decreases in all normally detected metabolites with significant widespread decreases in the ratio of N-acetylaspartate to creatine phosphocreatine and concomitant small increases in lactate in the white matter of both hemispheres. Metabolic abnormalities were milder in the frontal white matter and more severe in the posterior white matter. The 1H-MRSI pattern of the gray matter was normal in both patients. In one patient, a subsequent 1H-MRSI examination (performed 3 years after the first) confirmed the presence of widespread decreases in the ratio of N-acetylaspartate to creatine phosphocreatine in the white matter. We conclude that severe metabolic abnormalities can be found in the white matter of VML patients. This suggests that, despite the apparently mild clinical course, a severe neurodegenerative process may occur in the white matter of these patients. ( info)

16/128. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome in a patient with hypertensive encephalopathy--case report.

    A 58-year-old male presented with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) manifesting as headache, papilledema, and renal hypertension. T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed hyperintensity lesions in the medulla, pons, bilateral thalami, and bilateral deep white matter of the parieto-occipital lobes. The pons was swollen. diffusion-weighted MR imaging did not show increased intensity in these lesions. The lesions disappeared with improvement of clinical symptoms after treatment for hypertension. These findings suggested the lesions were vasogenic edema and the diagnosis was RPLS. T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MR imaging are useful modalities to differentiate RPLS from other central nervous system abnormalities such as infarction, multiple sclerosis, and central pontine myelinolysis. The clinical and neuroradiological findings of RPLS can be reversed by timely initiation of treatment for the causative factor. ( info)

17/128. cadasil: neuropsychological findings in three generations of an affected family.

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (cadasil) is a hereditary brain disease with a variety of neurologic and psychiatric manifestations. We studied 3 members of a family who each had leukoencephalopathy on neuroimaging studies and a characteristic mutation for cadasil in the notch 3 region of chromosome 19q12. In all 3 cases, neurobehavioral impairment dominated the clinical picture, and a pattern of psychiatric dysfunction heralding cognitive decline emerged. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed diverse deficits, but a profile of frontal lobe dysfunction, declarative memory impairment suggestive of a retrieval deficit, and relatively preserved language was evident. These cases provide a cross-sectional study of the evolution of cadasil, and suggest that, as in other diseases characterized by white matter dementia, psychiatric dysfunction may occur initially, followed by pervasive cognitive dysfunction later in the course of the disease. cadasil should be considered in young adults with unexplained leukoencephalopathy on neuroimaging studies, and in those with neurobehavioral dysfunction and a suggestive family history. ( info)

18/128. siblings with development delay, mild spasticity and subcortical cysts: a further leukoencephalopathy?

    We present a family with mild neurological symptoms and intra-cerebral subcortical cysts on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Common clinical features are microcephaly, learning difficulties, spasticity, dyspraxia and restricted movements of the neck and shoulder. The family has features in common with vacuolating leukoencephalopathy of van de Knaap and Olivier and may represent a new variant. ( info)

19/128. 11: disorders of memory and intellect.

    The clinical approach to the patient with a suspected disorder of memory and intellect is to establish whether it is dementia, which parts of the brain are affected, what is the cause, what is the prognosis, and what can be done about it. The diagnosis of dementia usually requires the involvement of memory and at least one other cognitive system. delirium and depression are important differential diagnoses. patients with dementia should usually have some simple investigations after a careful history-taking and examination to identify "reversible" causes. The commonest cause of dementia is Alzheimer's disease, in which short-term memory disturbance is usually prominent. Other causes of dementia include cerebrovascular disease, Lewy-body disease and Pick's disease. There is now hope for patients with Alzheimer's disease (which can be treated with some success with cholinesterase inhibitors) and patients with vascular dementia, in whom aggressive control of causal risk factors may retard progression. ( info)

20/128. Subcortical dementia associated with striking enlargement of the Virchow-Robin spaces and transneural degeneration of the left mammillo-thalamic tract.

    We report a case of subcortical dementia in a 68-year-old woman. MR examination of the patient's brain revealed two types of alterations as a possible cause of the dementia, both anomalous in respect of their entity and incidence: the first was a striking enlargement of the Virchow-Robin spaces, and the second an anterograde transneural degeneration of the left mammillo-thalamic tract and mammillary body secondary to a lacunar infarction of the ipsilateral anterior thalamus. ( info)
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