Cases reported "Dementia"

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1/1340. neurofibrillary tangles in the dementia of "normal pressure" hydrocephalus.

    Routine neuropathological examination could not explain the dramatic improvement exhibited by one patient with "normal pressure" hydrocephalus after shunting. The improved patient contrasted remarkably with the unchanged condition of four others also shunted successfully. The five brains were analysed by quantitative morphometry to determine the degree of neurofibrillary tangle formation in mesial temporal neurons. The density of tangle-bearing nerve cells in the four unimproved cases was markedly greater than in age-matched control brains from nineteen normal subjects, and fell in the same range as that of eight dements with neuropathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease. The density of the one who recovered was within normal limits. The duration of dementia before shunting, and the total duration of dementia in these five patients rank in the same order as their degree of neurofibrillary formation. Furthermore, a positive linear correlation exists between the Tangle Indices and the total duration of dementia. The data suggest that early diagnosis may improve the chances of reversing the dementia of normal pressure hydrocephalus before histological alterations prove too severe. ( info)

2/1340. Lymphomatosis cerebri presenting as a rapidly progressive dementia: clinical, neuroimaging and pathologic findings.

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) usually presents with clinical and neuroimaging findings consistent with single or multiple intracranial mass lesions. On cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), such lesions are nearly always contrast enhancing, reflecting disruption of the blood-brain barrier at the site of tumor nodules. We describe 2 cases from the UCLA Medical Center who developed a rapidly progressive dementia due to extensive gray and white matter cerebral lesions involving much of the brain. In the patient who came to autopsy, widely infiltrating, focally necrotic B-cell plasmacytoid lymphoma was noted throughout the cerebral neuraxis. MRI findings in case 2 were consistent with diffuse lymphomatous brain infiltration without mass lesions, which was biopsy proven. We conclude that PCNSL may occur in a diffusely infiltrating form which may occur without MRI evidence of mass lesions or blood-brain barrier compromise. We refer to this entity as 'lymphomatosis cerebri' and add it to the differential diagnosis of a rapidly progressive dementia. ( info)

3/1340. Subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (Binswanger's disease). A vascular etiology of dementia.

    A 51-yearold man with moderate intermittent hypertension had a rapidly progressive, profound dementia in the absence of significant localizing neurological signs. Postmortem examination disclosed the vascular alterations and diffuse white matter degeneration which characterize subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE) or Binswanger's disease. The case underscores the need to consider vascular disease as an etiology of dementia -- even in the absence of focal neurological deficit. ( info)

4/1340. Living with dementia: communicating with an older person and her family.

    This article is designed to explore and examine the key components of communication that emerged during the interactional analysis of a role play that took place in the classroom. The 'actors' were nurses who perceived the interaction to reflect an everyday encounter in a hospital ward. Permission to tape the interaction was sought and given by all persons involved. The principal 'players' in the scenario were: the patient, a 70-year-old-woman who had been admitted with dementia, her son and daughter, and the nurse in charge of the ward. The fundamental dynamics of the use of power and restriction, truth telling, family stress, interpersonal conflict, ageism, sexism, empathy and humanism surfaced during the analysis. The findings show that therapeutic communication should be the foundation on which nursing should stand. The article continues with an exploration of the theoretical frameworks that guided the analysis of interaction and concludes by suggesting tentatively some meaningful implications for nursing practice. It plans to furnish provocative new insights into the sometimes covert communication dynamics occurring within the nurse-patient relationship. Finally, it aims to generate discussion on this little-charted realm of human social interaction. ( info)

5/1340. The development of a dementia process within the family context: the case of Alice.

    Qualitative analysis was used to analyse a diary written over a period of two years by the sister of a dementia patient. The analysis is directed at the question of how a patient and a social network respond to each other during the dementia process. The diary highlights features in the development of the dementia process which receive scant attention in empirical studies: changes in the interaction process between patient and social network; a patient's residual capacities; a caregiver's perceived rewards of caregiving. We designated three phases in the interaction process: the phase of recognition, the stable phase and the phase of destabilization. This diary illustrates how a stable phase in the interaction between patient and primary caregiver can be established. The caregiver derived rewards by noticing and using the patient's residual capacities and by a feeling of being useful. In this case caregiving is not unidirectional. The quality of future support programmes may be enhanced by combining programmes aimed to influence patient's behaviour and to support caregivers. ( info)

6/1340. A kinematic study of progressive apraxia with and without dementia.

    BACKGROUND: Prehension is an ideationally simple, cued movement requiring proximal (transport) and distal (manipulation) limb control. patients with this syndrome of progressive apraxia are unable to perform many activities of daily living that require prehension. There is little known about how this syndrome kinematically disrupts such movements or whether concurrent dementia might play a critical role. OBJECTIVES: Using prehension as a paradigm for an ideationally simple, cued functional movement, we sought to (1) characterize the kinematic features of progressive apraxia in general, and (2) contrast the kinematic differences between apraxic patients with and without dementia. methods: Eight patients with the syndrome of progressive apraxia (including five without dementia, one of whom had autopsy-confirmed corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, and three with dementia, one of whom had autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease) were compared with eight age-matched normal control subjects on a prehension task using an Optotrak camera system. RESULTS: Compared with control subjects, apraxic subjects had slowed reaction time, slowed transport and manipulation kinematics, greater lateral deviation from the linear prehension trajectory, greater intermanual asymmetry, motor programming disturbances, and mild transport-manipulation uncoupling. There were minor differences between the apraxia subgroups such as greater intermanual differences and impaired grip aperture velocity in the nondemented group, and overall slower movement in the demented group. CONCLUSIONS: There are major kinematic differences between apraxic and control subjects on a prehension task. The differences between clinical-pathologic subgroups are more subtle, and the movement disorder itself rather than concurrent dementia is the greatest determinant of motor disability. ( info)

7/1340. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease presenting with visual blurring, diplopia and visual loss: Heidenhain's variant.

    Focal electroencephalographic abnormalities as described in Heidenhain's variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are uncommon. We report a 73-year-old male presenting with visual symptoms, right hemianopia and rapidly progressive dementia. myoclonus was synchronous with generalised periodic epileptiform discharges on electroencephalography (EEG). In addition, there were periodic focal sharp waves at the left occipital region. diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance brain images showed slightly increased signal intensity in the occipital parasagittal area, left more than right. 14-3-3 protein was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient died within 5 months of presentation. ( info)

8/1340. Hereditary sensory neuropathy with deafness and dementia: a clinical and neuroimaging study.

    We describe three sibling patients with autosomal dominantly inherited sensory neuropathy, sensorineural hearing loss and dementia. The features of cognitive-behavioral deficits in the patients, including executive dysfunction, apathy, indifference and inattention, were consistent with a frontal lobe dysfunction. magnetic resonance imaging showed a diffuse brain atrophy. A fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in one patient and a single photon emission computed tomography in another demonstrated a glucose hypometabolism or a hypoperfusion in the medial frontal and thalamic regions. Primary frontal involvement or frontal dysfunction secondary to thalamic lesions may contribute to the nature of dementia in these patients. ( info)

9/1340. Tau pathology in a family with dementia and a P301L mutation in tau.

    Familial forms of frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) have recently been associated with coding region and intronic mutations in the tau gene. Here we report our findings on 2 affected siblings from a family with early-onset dementia, characterized by extensive tau pathology and a Pro to Leu mutation at codon 301 of tau. The proband, a 55-year-old woman, and her 63-year-old brother died after a progressive dementing illness clinically diagnosed as alzheimer disease. Their mother, 2 sisters, maternal aunt and uncle, and several cousins were also affected. autopsy in both cases revealed frontotemporal atrophy and degeneration of basal ganglia and substantia nigra. Sequencing of exon 10 of the tau gene revealed a C to T transition at codon 301, resulting in a Pro to Leu substitution. Widespread neuronal and glial inclusions, neuropil threads, and astrocytic plaques similar to those seen in corticobasal degeneration were labeled with a battery of antibodies to phosphorylation-dependent and phosphorylation-independent epitopes spanning the entire tau sequence. Isolated tau filaments had the morphology of narrow twisted ribbons. Sarkosyl-insoluble tau exhibited 2 major bands of 64 and 68 kDa and a minor 72 kDa band, similar to the pattern seen in a familial tauopathy associated with an intronic tau mutation. These pathological tau bands predominantly contained the subset of tau isoforms with 4 microtubule-binding repeats selectively affected by the P301L missense mutation. Our findings emphasize the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of tauopathies and highlight intriguing links between FTDP-17 and other neurodegenerative diseases. ( info)

10/1340. Dementia following treatment of brain tumors with radiotherapy administered alone or in combination with nitrosourea-based chemotherapy: a clinical and pathological study.

    A retrospective clinical and pathological study of 4 patients who developed the syndrome of radiation induced dementia was performed. All patients fulfilled the following criteria: (1) a history of supratentorial irradiation; (2) no evidence of symptomatic recurrent tumor; (3) no other cause of progressive cerebral dysfunction and dementia. The clinical picture consisted of a progressive "subcortical" dementia occurring 3-12 months after a course of cerebral radiotherapy. Examination revealed early bilateral corticospinal tract involvement in all patients and dopa-resistant Parkinsonian syndrome in two. On CT scan and MRI of the brain, the main features consisted of progressive enlargement of the ventricles associated with a diffuse hypodensity/hyperintensity of the white matter best seen on T2 weighted images on MRI. The course was progressive over 8-48 months in 3 patients while one patient had stabilization of his condition for about 28 years. Treatment with corticosteroids or shunting did not produce sustained improvement and all patients eventually died. Pathological examination revealed diffuse white matter pallor with sparing of the arcuate fibers in all patients. Despite a common pattern on gross examination, microscopic studies revealed a variety of lesions that took two basic forms: (1) a diffuse axonal and myelin loss in the white matter associated with tissue necrosis, particularly multiple small foci of necrosis disseminated in the white matter which appeared different from the usual "radionecrosis"; (2) diffuse spongiosis of the white matter characterized by the presence of vacuoles that displaced the normally-stained myelin sheets and axons. Despite a rather stereotyped clinical and radiological course, the pathological substratum of radiation-induced dementia is not uniform. Whether the different types of white matter lesions represent the spectrum of a single pathological process or indicate that the pathogenesis of this syndrome is multifactorial with different target cells, remains to be seen. ( info)
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