Cases reported "Demyelinating Diseases"

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1/363. Steroid-responsive multifocal demyelinating neuropathy with central involvement.

    We describe 2 patients with associated central and peripheral demyelination. Electrophysiological studies revealed a demyelinating polyneuropathy with sensory and motor conduction blocks. Visual evoked potentials were abnormal. Motor evoked potentials showed abnormal central conduction time in 1 patient. magnetic resonance imaging revealed regions of abnormal high signal in the spinal cord and brain; sural nerve biopsy disclosed a demyelinating neuropathy. Both patients showed clinical and electrophysiological improvement after steroid therapy.
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2/363. Clinical, pathologic, and neurochemical studies of an unusual case of neuronal storage disease with lamellar cytoplasmic inclusions: a new genetic disorder?

    A child of first-cousin Puerto Rican parents had global developmental delay, failure to thrive, and hypotonia since early infancy. At 1 1/2 years of age, she developed clinical and electrophysiologic evidence of progressive motor and sensory neuropathy. At 2 1/2 years, she developed visual impairment and optic atrophy followed by gradual involvement of the 7th, 9th, 10th, and 12th cranial nerves. Uncontrollable myoclonic seizures began at 4 years and she died at 6 years of age. Motor nerve conduction velocities were initially normal and later became markedly slowed. Sensory distal latency responses were absent. Lysosomal enzyme activities in leukocytes and fibroblasts were normal. sural nerve and two muscle biopsies showed only nondiagnostic abnormalities. Electron microscopy of lymphocytes, skin, and fibroblasts showed cytoplasmic inclusions. light microscopy of frontal cortex biopsy showed neuronal storage material staining positively with Luxol fast blue, and electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic membranous bodies in neurons, suggesting an accumulation of a ganglioside. At autopsy, all organs were small but otherwise normal and without abnormal storage cells in the liver, spleen, or bone marrow. Anterior spinal nerve roots showed loss of large myelinated axons. The brain was small and atrophic; cortical neurons showed widespread accumulation of storage material, most marked in the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus. Subcortical white matter was gliotic with loss of axons and myelin sheaths. In cortical gray matter there was a 35% elevation of total gangliosides, with a 16-fold increase in GM3, a three- to four-fold increase in GM2 gangliosides, and a 15-fold elevation of lactosyl ceramide. GM3 sialidase activity was normal in gray matter at 3.1 nmols/mg protein per hour and lactosyl ceraminidase I and II activities were 70% to 80% of normal. In white matter, total myelin was reduced by 50% but its composition was normal. Phospholipid distribution and sphingomyelin content were normal in gray matter, white matter, and in the liver. These biochemical findings were interpreted as nonspecific abnormalities. The nature of the neuronal storage substance remains to be determined.
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3/363. Chronic steadily progressive central and peripheral predominantly motor demyelination, involving the cranial nerves, responsive to immunoglobulins.

    The association of central and peripheral demyelination was reported previously. Most of the cases refer to central chronic relapsing demyelination with clinical criteria for multiple sclerosis associated with later signs of peripheral nerve involvement. Other authors, described central lesions in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and in guillain-barre syndrome, as a seldom occurrence. We report a patient in which a chronic steadily progressive central and peripheral predominantly motor nervous system demyelination, involving the cranial nerves, was identified. The patient improved after intravenous immunoglobulin suggesting an immune-mediated mechanism. To our knowledge this presentation was not described before.
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4/363. optic atrophy and chronic acquired polyneuropathy.

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronic, multifocal disorder usually defined as limited to the peripheral nervous system. Multifocal motor neuropathy, an acquired demyelinating neuropathy with conduction block affecting motor neurons only, may be a pathogenically distinct syndrome or a predominantly motor variant of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. central nervous system demyelination including optic neuropathy has been reported uncommonly previously in these entities. We report two cases and review the literature on the possible association of optic neuropathy and chronic acquired polyneuropathy.
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5/363. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: superiority of protein A immunoadsorption over plasma exchange treatment.

    We present a patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) who was treated regularly with plasma exchanges (PE) because response to other therapies including i.v. immunoglobulins was not adequate. To reduce nonspecific protein losses due to repeated PE and increase IgG-removal, immunoadsorption (i.a.)-therapy using sepharose-bound protein A was initiated. Retrospective analysis of clinical data including muscle strength and walking distance shows that IA led to more rapid and greater functional improvement than PE in this patient with no relevant side effects. After 3 years of therapy lymphoma was diagnosed and treated. The patient had no relapses of CIDP for 17 months, when his functional status deteriorated again necessitating further IA-therapy. It is concluded that IgG removal by IA in CIDP is more effective and has fewer complications than PE. Due to the chronic course of CIDP requiring repeated interventions IA is also not more expensive than PE.
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6/363. Conduction block and continuous motor unit activity in chronic acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    The term continuous motor unit activity (CMUA) may be used to refer to the involuntary, sustained activity of motor units caused by hyperactivity of peripheral motor nerves. CMUA has been reported in association with acquired neuropathies such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. The precise mechanism responsible for the excess muscle activity is not defined, but the activity is believed to originate in the peripheral nerves, perhaps at sites of focal demyelination. We describe a case of an acquired, demyelinating neuropathy associated with distal motor conduction block in which CMUA was observed in muscles innervated by blocked axons. Despite the prolonged disease duration of nearly 40 years, marked clinical and electrophysiological improvement as well as resolution of the CMUA were observed following immunosuppressive therapy. A relationship between the chronic motor conduction block and the excess muscle activity is postulated.
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7/363. Congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy: two patients with long-term follow-up.

    The authors report the long-term prospective follow-up of two unrelated females with congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy (CHN) and review previously reported cases. The authors' first patient presented with neonatal hypotonia and extremely slow nerve conduction velocities. sural nerve biopsy revealed profound hypomyelination, without inflammation or evidence of myelin breakdown. She is now 9 years of age, and her motor function has continued to improve. Follow-up nerve-conduction velocities are unchanged. The authors' second patient presented at 5 months with hypotonia. Nerve-conduction velocities were extremely slow, and sural nerve biopsy revealed severe hypomyelination, with no inflammation or evidence of myelin breakdown. She is now 5 years of age and has also demonstrated improved motor function. Repeated nerve-conduction velocities are unchanged. Both patients have normal cognitive development. Molecular genetic analysis in Patient 2 disclosed a point mutation in the myelin protein zero gene; this same point mutation has been reported in three other patients diagnosed with Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS) but has never been reported in a patient with CHN. Although CHN is a distinct clinical entity, it may share similar genetic features with DSS.
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8/363. Can immunoadsorption plasmapheresis be used as the first choice therapy for neuroimmunological disorders?

    The subjects were 31 patients in whom immunoadsorption plasmapheresis (IAPP) was performed as the first choice therapy for primary or recurrent neuroimmunological disorders. The clinical manifestations before and after IAPP and the use of corticosteroids were investigated in the present study. IAPP was clinically effective in all patients. The corticosteroids (CSs) administration was begun or CSs were increased after completion of IAPP in 11 patients. IAPP was performed as the first choice therapy, and favorable results were obtained in patients with guillain-barre syndrome and Miller-Fisher syndrome. IAPP alone was also effective in a patient with lupoid sclerosis. When IAPP was used alone in 2 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, it completely eliminated the clinical manifestations, but the symptoms recurred about 2 months later. Therefore, although IAPP could be performed as the first choice therapy for many neuroimmunological disorders, subsequent therapies should be carefully investigated.
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9/363. Prominent effect of immunoadsorption plasmapheresis therapy in a patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with hepatitis b infection.

    We encountered a patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with hepatitis b infection. Immunohistochemical study revealed the deposition of immune complex composed of hepatitis b surface antigen (HBsAg) both around the endoneural capillary and in the endoneurium. Neurological signs were significantly improved by immunoadsorption plasmapheresis (IAPP) treatment without incorporating corticosteroid hormone therapy; weekly long-term IAPP has successfully maintained the patient's condition.
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ranking = 0.83333333333333
keywords = neuropathy
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10/363. Congenital hypomyelination due to myelin protein zero Q215X mutation.

    Congenital hypomyelination (CH) is a hereditary demyelinating peripheral neuropathy characterized by early infancy onset, distal muscle weakness, hypotonia, areflexia, and severe slowing of nerve conduction velocities. In the present report, the clinical, morphological, and immunohistochemical features of a CH case and the identification of a mutation in the gene (MPZ) for protein zero (P0) associated with this phenotype are described. This "de novo" mutation in a patient presenting with clinical features quite distinct from those of the more frequent Charcot-Marie-tooth type 1B disease (CMT1B) or Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS) confirms that CH is allelic with other disorders characterized by a less severe phenotype and a different clinical and neuropathological profile.
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