Cases reported "Demyelinating Diseases"

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1/55. Clinical, pathologic, and neurochemical studies of an unusual case of neuronal storage disease with lamellar cytoplasmic inclusions: a new genetic disorder?

    A child of first-cousin Puerto Rican parents had global developmental delay, failure to thrive, and hypotonia since early infancy. At 1 1/2 years of age, she developed clinical and electrophysiologic evidence of progressive motor and sensory neuropathy. At 2 1/2 years, she developed visual impairment and optic atrophy followed by gradual involvement of the 7th, 9th, 10th, and 12th cranial nerves. Uncontrollable myoclonic seizures began at 4 years and she died at 6 years of age. Motor nerve conduction velocities were initially normal and later became markedly slowed. Sensory distal latency responses were absent. Lysosomal enzyme activities in leukocytes and fibroblasts were normal. sural nerve and two muscle biopsies showed only nondiagnostic abnormalities. Electron microscopy of lymphocytes, skin, and fibroblasts showed cytoplasmic inclusions. light microscopy of frontal cortex biopsy showed neuronal storage material staining positively with Luxol fast blue, and electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic membranous bodies in neurons, suggesting an accumulation of a ganglioside. At autopsy, all organs were small but otherwise normal and without abnormal storage cells in the liver, spleen, or bone marrow. Anterior spinal nerve roots showed loss of large myelinated axons. The brain was small and atrophic; cortical neurons showed widespread accumulation of storage material, most marked in the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus. Subcortical white matter was gliotic with loss of axons and myelin sheaths. In cortical gray matter there was a 35% elevation of total gangliosides, with a 16-fold increase in GM3, a three- to four-fold increase in GM2 gangliosides, and a 15-fold elevation of lactosyl ceramide. GM3 sialidase activity was normal in gray matter at 3.1 nmols/mg protein per hour and lactosyl ceraminidase I and II activities were 70% to 80% of normal. In white matter, total myelin was reduced by 50% but its composition was normal. Phospholipid distribution and sphingomyelin content were normal in gray matter, white matter, and in the liver. These biochemical findings were interpreted as nonspecific abnormalities. The nature of the neuronal storage substance remains to be determined.
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2/55. Lesion development in Marburg's type of acute multiple sclerosis: from inflammation to demyelination.

    We report a patient who suffered from acute inflammatory CNS demyelination and underwent two consecutive diagnostic stereotactic brain biopsies during the early disease course. The first lesion was drawn 33 days after the onset of disseminated neurological symptoms. macrophages and T lymphocytes diffusely infiltrated small vessel walls and the white matter. mRNA for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was abundantly expressed. Myelin sheaths were entirely preserved. The second biopsy 76 days later showed confluent demyelinating lesions with a diffuse infiltration of macrophages that were positive for myelin debris, activation markers and TNFalpha and iNOS mRNA. IgG and C9neo deposits were found along myelin sheaths. The patient had received intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) prior to biopsy. Findings from this single patient affirm that demyelination follows the migration of inflammatory cells from the circulation into the white matter with subsequent inflammation and demyelination. inflammation alone may be sufficient to cause significant clinical deficits without demyelination. Inflammatory mediators such as TNFalpha and NO are involved at very early stages in the pathogenetic process. IVIG treatment may lead to the deposition of immunoglobulins and to the activation of the complement cascade, but the clinical relevance of this particular finding remains uncertain.
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keywords = macrophage
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3/55. Demyelination in primate autoimmune encephalomyelitis and acute multiple sclerosis lesions: a case for antigen-specific antibody mediation.

    Neuropathological and ultrastructural features of central nervous system demyelination were compared in marmoset experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced with myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), and in 3 cases of multiple sclerosis (MS) displaying recent lesions. At the edges of EAE and MS lesions, a zone of myelin vacuolation was common, whereas in the lesion proper, myelin sheaths were consistently transformed into vesiculated membranous networks. These networks became dissociated from axons by cell processes from macrophages. Oligodendrocytes were remarkably spared and evidence of myelin repair was present but not prominent. Axonal pathology was more common in the MS material than in marmoset EAE. Immunocytochemistry, using gold-labeled encephalitogenic peptides of MOG and silver enhancement to detect MOG autoantibodies, revealed the presence of MOG-specific autoantibodies over vesiculated myelin networks. gold-labeled antibody to IgG also gave a positive reaction. gold-labeled peptide of myelin basic protein did not react with MOG/EAE tissue, but the same conjugate gave positive staining in MS (and in marmoset EAE induced by whole white matter), perhaps indicating broader spectrum immunoreactivity or sensitization to myelin antigens. Thus, vesicular disruption of myelin was a constant feature in these evolving, highly active lesions in primate EAE and MS and appeared causally related to the deposition of antigen-specific autoantibodies.
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keywords = macrophage
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4/55. Clinical, radiological, immunological and pathological findings in inflammatory CNS demyelination--possible markers for an antibody-mediated process.

    The present report describes immunopathological, radiologcal and serological characteristics of antibody-mediated demyelination in a multiple sclerosis (MS) case with the main findings: (1) immunoglobulin and complement deposits in areas of active demyelination accompanied by massive macrophage activation; (2) ring-enhancing lesions in T1-weighted MRI after gadolinium application; (3) high titers of serum anti-myelin antibodies; and (4) signs of macrophage activation in the serum. plasmapheresis may be a successful treatment for the type of inflammatory demyelination shown in the present case.
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keywords = macrophage
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5/55. Chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy in graft-versus-host disease following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    In recent years a novel problem has arisen in organ transplantation medicine, namely GVHD. The nervous system has been involved mainly at the level of the CNS and this can lead to a serious outcome for the patient. In rare cases, peripheral nerves may be affected and show acute or chronic polyneuropathy. Here a case is reported of polyneuropathy associated with chronic GVHD. A 32-year-old man, suffering from chronic GVHD following an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for malignant lymphoma at the age of 25, developed a motor dominant polyneuropathy 5 years later. Electrophysiologic studies demonstrated the demyelinating type of polyneuropathy. biopsy specimens from skin and skeletal muscle disclosed perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates expressing T-cell markers. The sural nerve showed a loss of myelinated nerve fibers with epineurial fibrosis and rare occurrence of T cells, but without obvious vasculitic changes. The present case suggested that polyneuropathy could develop in association with chronic GVHD in some patients with a long-standing disease course.
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6/55. Demyelinating pseudotumor.

    Demyelinating disease presenting as a solitary contrast-enhancing mass poses a diagnostic challenge for both radiologists and surgical pathologists. We report the cases of two female patients, aged 23 and 37 years, who exhibited the clinical and radiologic features of a space-occupying mass strongly suggestive of neoplasia. In both patients, magnetic resonance imaging showed a ring-enhancing parietal lesion. Intraoperative frozen sections in both patients displayed histologic features strongly suggestive of a glial neoplasm, including marked hypercellularity, a prominent astrocytic component, and easily identifiable mitotic figures. However, permanent sections showed additional and helpful histologic findings that included Creutzfeldt astrocytes and granular mitoses. Subsequent immunostaining showed that the hypercellularity was principally caused by macrophage infiltration (HAM-56 and CD68) and an associated reactive astrocytosis (glial fibrillary acidic protein). Additional confirmatory tests included special stains for myelin (Luxol-fast-blue), which demonstrated focal, sharply marginated loss of myelin, and for axons (silver stain for axons and neurofilament protein immunohistochemistry), which showed relative preservation of axons in areas of myelin loss. Together, the special stains confirmed the demyelinating nature of the lesions. The keys to avoiding misdiagnosing a demyelinating pseudotumor as a diffuse glioma include a general awareness of this potential pitfall, including the radiologic appearance of demyelinating pseudotumors as contrast-enhancing solitary masses that mimic tumor; knowledge of the characteristic histologic features, including Creutzfeldt astrocytes and granular mitoses; and a high index of suspicion for macrophage infiltration combined with a willingness to use appropriate confirmatory immunohistochemical studies in suspicious or uncertain cases. This approach will minimize the chance of misdiagnosis and subsequent use of inappropriate and deleterious therapies.
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ranking = 8236.8218788814
keywords = macrophage
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7/55. Subacute idiopathic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    Seven cases of subacute idiopathic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy had a monophasic illness characterized by progressive weakness of all four limbs that evolved during 4 to 8 weeks. Neurophysiological investigations implied demyelination in all seven cases. In two patients, sural nerve biopsy specimens that were taken showed macrophage-associated demyelination. All patients made substantial or complete recoveries with oral prednisolone (four cases) or without treatment (three cases). None of the patients required ventilation or had autonomic complications. These cases provide a link between the acute idiopathic demyelinating form of guillain-barre syndrome and chronic idiopathic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.
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keywords = macrophage
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8/55. Vermian hypoplasia and arrested cerebral myelination in two sisters: variant of Joubert's syndrome or a new syndrome?

    Two adult sisters have vermian hypoplasia, ataxia, nystagmus, pontine divergence insufficiency, and mild to moderate intellectual disability, with an arrest of cerebral myelination resembling the pattern of a 4-month-old infant. Other abnormalities include high myopia, optic nerve hypoplasia, decreased bone density, hypoplasia of the secondary teeth, and amenorrhea. We did not find matching patients described in the literature. The sisters could represent a variant of one of the described syndromes of the cerebellocerebro-oculorenal spectrum, such as a variant of Joubert's syndrome, or a disorder sui generis within the spectrum.
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9/55. Demyelinating peripheral neuropathy associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. An immuno-electron microscopic study.

    We report the case of an 11-year-old male who developed subacute diffuse polyradiculoneuropathy, associated with digestive symptoms and Epstein-Barr virus infection. Parental consanguinity was present. The laboratory findings including bone marrow smear were consistent with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Electrophysiological study of peripheral nerves revealed an intense and diffuse demyelinating process. The histological nerve lesions were severe and purely demyelinating. Most axons were intact. There was a diffuse infiltration of the nerve parenchyma by mononuclear cells. Immuno-electron microscopic study evidenced entry of macrophages into Schwann cell cytoplasm with dissociation of myelin sheaths. This boy died several months after the onset of the neuropathic symptoms. HLH is a rare genetic or acquired disorder in childhood characterized by abnormal immune activation, which induces an uncontrolled inflammatory response with sustained hyperactivation of T lymphocytes and macrophages. Only very rare cases of peripheral nerve involvement have been described in HLH. This is the first case showing that peripheral nerves, as other viscera, may be destroyed by the macrophagic infiltration, which characterizes HLH.
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ranking = 8237.8218788814
keywords = macrophage, bone
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10/55. An autopsy case of hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids, clinically suspected of Alzheimer's disease.

    We report here a case of orthochromatic leukodystrophy with spheroids. A 40-year-old woman developed forgetfulness. About 1 year after the onset, clinical examination confirmed global intellectual deterioration with amnesia, spatiotemporal disorientation, and impairment of judgment. At age 43, she experienced tonic-clonic convulsions several times, and died of pneumonia at the age of 44. Alzheimer's disease was suspected clinically. Pathologically, there was severe diffuse demyelination of the deep white matter of the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes with relative preservation of the subcortical U fibers. In the central demyelinated areas, myelin loss was severe with diffuse gliosis, moderate loss of axons, and many axonal spheroids. At the periphery of the severely degenerated regions, there were a lot of macrophages and most had non-metachromatic lipid granules. The cerebral cortex was intact. The neuropathological findings of this case are consistent with hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS). Ten cases of HDLS were reviewed and presented many findings in common. The gray matter was intact and U fibers were well preserved in most cases. In white matter lesions, severe loss of myelin, moderate to severe axonal loss, much axonal swelling, and the presence of macrophages and hypertrophic astrocytes were common findings. In some cases with HDLS, dementia appeared without obvious neurological manifestations in the early stage. We should remember that some cases with HDLS show clinical symptoms similar to Alzheimer's disease, especially in the early stage.
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keywords = macrophage
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