Cases reported "Demyelinating Diseases"

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1/301. Steroid-responsive multifocal demyelinating neuropathy with central involvement.

    We describe 2 patients with associated central and peripheral demyelination. Electrophysiological studies revealed a demyelinating polyneuropathy with sensory and motor conduction blocks. Visual evoked potentials were abnormal. Motor evoked potentials showed abnormal central conduction time in 1 patient. magnetic resonance imaging revealed regions of abnormal high signal in the spinal cord and brain; sural nerve biopsy disclosed a demyelinating neuropathy. Both patients showed clinical and electrophysiological improvement after steroid therapy.
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keywords = nerve, block
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2/301. Clinical, pathologic, and neurochemical studies of an unusual case of neuronal storage disease with lamellar cytoplasmic inclusions: a new genetic disorder?

    A child of first-cousin Puerto Rican parents had global developmental delay, failure to thrive, and hypotonia since early infancy. At 1 1/2 years of age, she developed clinical and electrophysiologic evidence of progressive motor and sensory neuropathy. At 2 1/2 years, she developed visual impairment and optic atrophy followed by gradual involvement of the 7th, 9th, 10th, and 12th cranial nerves. Uncontrollable myoclonic seizures began at 4 years and she died at 6 years of age. Motor nerve conduction velocities were initially normal and later became markedly slowed. Sensory distal latency responses were absent. Lysosomal enzyme activities in leukocytes and fibroblasts were normal. sural nerve and two muscle biopsies showed only nondiagnostic abnormalities. Electron microscopy of lymphocytes, skin, and fibroblasts showed cytoplasmic inclusions. light microscopy of frontal cortex biopsy showed neuronal storage material staining positively with Luxol fast blue, and electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic membranous bodies in neurons, suggesting an accumulation of a ganglioside. At autopsy, all organs were small but otherwise normal and without abnormal storage cells in the liver, spleen, or bone marrow. Anterior spinal nerve roots showed loss of large myelinated axons. The brain was small and atrophic; cortical neurons showed widespread accumulation of storage material, most marked in the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus. Subcortical white matter was gliotic with loss of axons and myelin sheaths. In cortical gray matter there was a 35% elevation of total gangliosides, with a 16-fold increase in GM3, a three- to four-fold increase in GM2 gangliosides, and a 15-fold elevation of lactosyl ceramide. GM3 sialidase activity was normal in gray matter at 3.1 nmols/mg protein per hour and lactosyl ceraminidase I and II activities were 70% to 80% of normal. In white matter, total myelin was reduced by 50% but its composition was normal. Phospholipid distribution and sphingomyelin content were normal in gray matter, white matter, and in the liver. These biochemical findings were interpreted as nonspecific abnormalities. The nature of the neuronal storage substance remains to be determined.
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ranking = 3.1230359826634
keywords = nerve
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3/301. Chronic steadily progressive central and peripheral predominantly motor demyelination, involving the cranial nerves, responsive to immunoglobulins.

    The association of central and peripheral demyelination was reported previously. Most of the cases refer to central chronic relapsing demyelination with clinical criteria for multiple sclerosis associated with later signs of peripheral nerve involvement. Other authors, described central lesions in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and in guillain-barre syndrome, as a seldom occurrence. We report a patient in which a chronic steadily progressive central and peripheral predominantly motor nervous system demyelination, involving the cranial nerves, was identified. The patient improved after intravenous immunoglobulin suggesting an immune-mediated mechanism. To our knowledge this presentation was not described before.
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ranking = 4.6845539739951
keywords = nerve
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4/301. optic atrophy and chronic acquired polyneuropathy.

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronic, multifocal disorder usually defined as limited to the peripheral nervous system. Multifocal motor neuropathy, an acquired demyelinating neuropathy with conduction block affecting motor neurons only, may be a pathogenically distinct syndrome or a predominantly motor variant of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. central nervous system demyelination including optic neuropathy has been reported uncommonly previously in these entities. We report two cases and review the literature on the possible association of optic neuropathy and chronic acquired polyneuropathy.
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ranking = 0.21924100433415
keywords = block
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5/301. Conduction block and continuous motor unit activity in chronic acquired demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    The term continuous motor unit activity (CMUA) may be used to refer to the involuntary, sustained activity of motor units caused by hyperactivity of peripheral motor nerves. CMUA has been reported in association with acquired neuropathies such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. The precise mechanism responsible for the excess muscle activity is not defined, but the activity is believed to originate in the peripheral nerves, perhaps at sites of focal demyelination. We describe a case of an acquired, demyelinating neuropathy associated with distal motor conduction block in which CMUA was observed in muscles innervated by blocked axons. Despite the prolonged disease duration of nearly 40 years, marked clinical and electrophysiological improvement as well as resolution of the CMUA were observed following immunosuppressive therapy. A relationship between the chronic motor conduction block and the excess muscle activity is postulated.
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ranking = 3.0962050216708
keywords = nerve, block
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6/301. Congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy: two patients with long-term follow-up.

    The authors report the long-term prospective follow-up of two unrelated females with congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy (CHN) and review previously reported cases. The authors' first patient presented with neonatal hypotonia and extremely slow nerve conduction velocities. sural nerve biopsy revealed profound hypomyelination, without inflammation or evidence of myelin breakdown. She is now 9 years of age, and her motor function has continued to improve. Follow-up nerve-conduction velocities are unchanged. The authors' second patient presented at 5 months with hypotonia. Nerve-conduction velocities were extremely slow, and sural nerve biopsy revealed severe hypomyelination, with no inflammation or evidence of myelin breakdown. She is now 5 years of age and has also demonstrated improved motor function. Repeated nerve-conduction velocities are unchanged. Both patients have normal cognitive development. Molecular genetic analysis in Patient 2 disclosed a point mutation in the myelin protein zero gene; this same point mutation has been reported in three other patients diagnosed with Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS) but has never been reported in a patient with CHN. Although CHN is a distinct clinical entity, it may share similar genetic features with DSS.
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ranking = 3.9037949783292
keywords = nerve
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7/301. Congenital hypomyelination due to myelin protein zero Q215X mutation.

    Congenital hypomyelination (CH) is a hereditary demyelinating peripheral neuropathy characterized by early infancy onset, distal muscle weakness, hypotonia, areflexia, and severe slowing of nerve conduction velocities. In the present report, the clinical, morphological, and immunohistochemical features of a CH case and the identification of a mutation in the gene (MPZ) for protein zero (P0) associated with this phenotype are described. This "de novo" mutation in a patient presenting with clinical features quite distinct from those of the more frequent Charcot-Marie-tooth type 1B disease (CMT1B) or Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS) confirms that CH is allelic with other disorders characterized by a less severe phenotype and a different clinical and neuropathological profile.
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ranking = 0.78075899566585
keywords = nerve
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8/301. Spinal root and plexus hypertrophy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    MRI was performed on the spinal roots, brachial and lumbar plexuses of 14 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). hypertrophy of cervical roots and brachial plexus was demonstrated in eight cases, six of whom also had hypertrophy of the lumbar plexus. Of 11 patients who received gadolinium, five of six cases with hypertrophy and one of five without hypertrophy demonstrated enhancement. All patients with hypertrophy had a relapsing-remitting course and a significantly longer disease duration. Gross onion-bulb formations were seen in a biopsy of nerve from the brachial plexus in one case with clinically evident nodular hypertrophy. We conclude that spinal root and plexus hypertrophy may be seen on MRI, particularly in cases of CIDP of long duration, and gadolinium enhancement may be present in active disease.
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ranking = 0.78075899566585
keywords = nerve
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9/301. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with multiple hypertrophic nerves in intracranial, and intra- and extra-spinal segments.

    Hypertrophic nerves have occasionally been seen in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), but most are in the cauda equina. We report a case with CIDP in whom magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhancement demonstrated hypertrophy of various peripheral nerves including multiple cranial nerves. Interestingly, none showed neurological signs corresponding to the lesions, except for clinical signs consistent with CIDP. MRI can be useful for the detection of silent, but abnormal nerve involvement in CIDP.
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ranking = 6.2460719653268
keywords = nerve
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10/301. Congenital hypomyelination neuropathy with Ser72Leu substitution in PMP22.

    We describe a patient with congenital hypomyelination neuropathy. The pathological and morphometrical findings in the sural nerve biopsy were consistent with a defect of myelin formation and maintenance. Direct sequence analysis of the genomic regions coding the peripheral myelin proteins P0 and PMP22 disclosed a heterozygous missense point mutation that leads to a Ser72Leu substitution in the second transmembrane of PMP22. codon 72 mutations of PMP22 are associated with different phenotypes encompassing the Dejerine-Sottas syndrome and including congenital hypomyelination neuropathy.
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ranking = 0.78075899566585
keywords = nerve
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