Cases reported "Dental Calculus"

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1/4. Factors contributing to adverse soft tissue reactions due to the use of tartar control toothpastes: report of a case and literature review.

    Tetrasodium and/or tetrapotassium pyrophosphate (Ppi) is the anticalculus component of most tartar control dentifrices on the market today. While pyrophosphates alone are not responsible for hypersensitivity reactions, several modifications which may lead to adverse oral manifestations may occur when pyrophosphates are added to a dentifrice. First, tetrasodium pyrophosphate in a dentifrice forms a slightly alkaline solution upon oral use which could irritate oral membranes. Second, increased concentrations of flavoring agents, known to be sensitizers, are needed to mask the strong bitter taste of pyrophosphates. Third, increased concentrations of detergents, capable of producing hypersensitivity reactions, are necessary to allow the pyrophosphates to become soluble in the dentifrice. Fourth, a pre-existing condition of reduced salivary flow may augment hypersensitivity to tartar control toothpastes. While pyrophosphates have been approved as additives in dentifrices, these compounds along with the increased concentrations of flavorings and detergents and their higher intraoral alkalinity are strongly implicated as the causative factor in certain hypersensitivity reactions.
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2/4. Calculus-like deposit on the apical external root surface of teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis: report of two cases.

    AIM: To report two cases in which calculus-like material was found on external root surfaces of (i) an extracted root and (ii) an apicected part of a root, both of which were removed due to post-treatment refractory apical periodontitis. SUMMARY: In each case, there was a fistulous tract, which did not heal after conventional root canal treatment. The first case did not heal even after apical surgery, and subsequent tooth extraction revealed calculus-like material on a root surface of complex anatomy. The second case showed radiographic signs of healing after apicectomy. histology of the apical biopsy revealed a calculus-like material on the external surface of the root apex. It is suggested that the presence of calculus on the root surfaces of teeth with periapical lesions may contribute towards the aetiology of failure. KEY learning POINTS: Biofilm on the external root surface has been implicated in the failure of apical periodontitis to heal, despite adequate root canal treatment. Calculus-like material was found, in two cases, on the root surface of teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis, where the only communication externally was a sinus tract.
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3/4. Tartar-control toothpaste as a possible contributory factor in the onset of superficial mucocele: a case report.

    Superficial mucoceles are small, clear vesicles that occur on clinically non-inflamed mucosa and are often misdiagnosed as vesiculobullous disorders. Soft palate, retromolar pads, and posterior buccal mucosa are common sites of involvement. The lesions are more common in women than in men and need no treatment. This paper describes a 71-year-old female who demonstrated some of the pitfalls in diagnosis and a possible contributory role of a tartar-control toothpaste in the onset of the lesions.
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4/4. Calculus-like deposit at apex of tooth with refractory apical periodontitis.

    It is generally accepted that bacteria in or outside the root canal are the reason for apical periodontitis and endodontic failures. This case report presents a 60-year-old woman with a periapical lesion and a fistulous tract which did not respond to conventional root canal treatment. During periapical surgery, granulomatous tissue was removed and a calculus-like deposit was observed on the root surface. A radicular cyst was diagnosed. Nine months after this calculus-like deposit had been removed and the cyst enucleated, complete recovery of the bone had occurred. It is suggested that the presence of the calculus-like deposit at the apex of the tooth or its effects may in part have delayed the healing of the periapical inflammation in spite of apparently adequate endodontic treatment.
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