Cases reported "Dental Plaque"

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1/55. Tissue necrosis after subgingival irrigation with fluoride solution.

    Irrigation of periodontal pockets with fluoride solution after scaling and root planing is occasionally recommended to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the periodontal pocket. At the same time, irrigation enables mechanical removal of loosely adhering plaque and debris. Due to its toxicity, fluoride solution deposited in the periodontium may lead to tissue damage. We report in this paper, a case of extensive periodontal tissue necrosis and permanent loss of alveolar bone after irrigation of periodontal pockets with stannous fluoride solution. The literature on the toxic effects of fluoride on the local tissues is briefly reviewed and arguments for a re-evaluation of the use of stannous fluoride for pocket irrigation are provided.
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ranking = 1
keywords = gingival
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2/55. Microbiological features of Papillon-Lefevre syndrome periodontitis.

    Papillon-Lefevre syndrome patients exhibit hyperkeratosis palmo-plantaris and severe periodontitis. The syndrome is an autosomal recessive trait, but the mechanism of periodontal destruction is not known. This report presents the clinical and microbiological features of an 11-year old girl with Papillon-Lefevre syndrome. Clinical examination included conventional periodontal measurements and radiographic analysis. In samples from 3 deep periodontal lesions, the occurrence of major suspected periodontopathic bacteria was determined by selective and non-selective culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification, and the presence of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr type 1 virus by a nested-PCR detection method. 10 of 22 available teeth demonstrated severe periodontal breakdown. Major cultivable bacteria included actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (3.4% of total isolates), prevotella nigrescens (16.4%), fusobacterium nucleatum (14.3%) and peptostreptococcus micros (10.6%). A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. nigrescens, porphyromonas gingivalis and eikenella corrodens were identified by PCR analysis. The patient's non-affected parents and older brother revealed several periodontal pathogens but not A. actinomycetemcomitans. The viral examination demonstrated cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr type 1 virus in the subgingival sample of the Papillon-Lefevre syndrome patient. The father and brother yielded subgingival cytomegalovirus but not Epstein-Barr type 1 virus. We hypothesize that human herpesviruses in concert with A. actinomycetemcomitans play important roles in the development of Papillon-Lefevre syndrome periodontitis.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = gingival
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3/55. Comparing periodontal disease in identical twins: a case report.

    Previous investigators have shown that numerous environmental and genetic variables may contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. This case report presents clinical and laboratory findings of a set of Caucasian female identical twins. One patient presented clinically with mild gingivitis and no clinical or radiographic signs of periodontitis. The other exhibited gingivitis with localized, moderate-to-severe periodontitis. Neither patient reported a history of systemic conditions that might influence their periodontal health, and neither presented other known risk factors, such as tobacco use. The only apparent variable was related to their oral hygiene. The periodontally involved patient exhibited higher plaque scores than her twin in all clinical visits. Subgingival plaque cultures revealed the presence of porphyromonas gingivalis and bacteroides forsythus only in the diseased twin. Both patients had low colony counts of prevotella intermedia and eikenella corrodens, but only the healthy twin harbored small quantities of fusobacterium nucleatum. This case report offers an opportunity to assess etiology of periodontitis in two genetically identical patients whose only obvious difference was their oral hygiene.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = gingival
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4/55. Subgingival plaque and loss of attachment in periodontosis as observed in autopsy material.

    Histologic sections from six autopsy cases which from a clinical point of view fitted into the criteria of periodontosis were examined with the aim at evaluating the role of subgingival plaque in the etiology of the loss of attachment in this condition. The following pertinent observations were made: 1. The subgingival plaque in most instances was not calcified to form calculus. 2. The thickness of the subgingival plaque varied between 20 and 200 mu (0.02-0.2 mm). 3. Where loss of attachment had taken place, the distance from the most apical part of the subgingival plaque to the most apical point of the epithelial cuff varied between 0.2 and 1.1 mm; this distance was never found to be more than 1.1 mm. This would indicate a cause and effect relationship, the plaque being the obvious cause. 4. There was very severe chronic inflammation in the soft tissue bordering upon the plaque with resulting collagenolysis. 5. The cellular infiltration and the collagenolysis may be limited to a zone of 1 to 2 mm in the immediate vicinity of the plaque. Between the inflamed area and the surface of the gingivae buccally and lingually there may be a fairly wide zone of healthy tissue which hides the symptoms of inflammation from being observed on a clinical examination. In turn this could leave the clinician with the impression that attachment has been lost and bone resorbed because of degenerative changes. The following conclusions can be made: In these six cases of "alveolar bone loss vastly out of proportion to what one would expect from the local etiologic factors in the patient at that age" there was no morphologic evidence that degenerative changes were responsible for the loss of attachment. On the contrary inflammatory changes induced by the subgingval plaque dominated the histopathologic picture.
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ranking = 2
keywords = gingival
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5/55. cyclosporine A-induced gingival hyperplasia pemphigus vulgaris: literature review and report of a case.

    gingival hyperplasia appears in 8% to 85% of patients treated with cyclosporine. Most studies show an association between oral hygiene status and the prevalence and severity of this gingival overgrowth. Thus, besides attempting to substitute this drug with another whenever possible, treatment usually involves maintenance of strict oral hygiene coupled with scaling and root planing and removal of iatrogenic factors. Sometimes a second treatment phase involving periodontal surgery is necessary. cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth has been mainly described in post-organ transplant patients. The present case describes, for the first time, a severe form of cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth arising in a 15 year-old male with pemphigus vulgaris. Periodontal treatment included oral hygiene and scaling and root planing under local anesthesia. There was a significant reduction in gingival enlargement, as well as a reduction in plaque levels and inflammation. Cessation of drug administration, combined with continuous periodontal treatment, brought further improvement. This successful conservative treatment of cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth in a pemphigus vulgaris patient suggests that early diagnosis and comprehensive treatment of these lesions may yield good response and reduce the need for periodontal surgery.
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ranking = 15.012755327734
keywords = gingival hyperplasia, gingival, hyperplasia
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6/55. microbiology of subgingival plaque from children with localized prepubertal periodontitis.

    Localized prepubertal periodontitis has been described as a host-defect mediated form of bacterially induced periodontitis, with an early onset and rapid progression around a few teeth in children prior to puberty. To further our understanding of the etiology of this disease, we have examined the microbiological components of subgingival dental plaque in 9 children with localized prepubertal periodontitis to determine if patterns of putative pathogens existed, and have compared these results with those obtained from 4 children with no periodontitis. Subgingival plaque samples were plated onto a selective medium for actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and onto a non-selective medium for anaerobes, and the predominant cultivable microbiota of 2 sites per child was determined. The subgingival microbiota of children with localized prepubertal periodontitis clearly differs from non-diseased children in the detection of high levels of several suspected pathogens, including A. actinomycetemcomitans, bacteroides intermedius, eikenella corrodens, and capnocytophaga sputigena. These putative pathogens were found in various combinations. These findings suggest that localized prepubertal periodontitis is associated with specific subgingival bacteria which are generally not found in children without periodontitis.
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ranking = 2
keywords = gingival
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7/55. Features of severe periodontal disease in a teenager with chediak-higashi syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: chediak-higashi syndrome (C-HS) is a rare congenital disease characterized by defective neutrophil function with abnormal lysosomal inclusions, neutropenia, and reduced chemotaxis. The complete syndrome includes oculocutaneous albinism with photophobia, neurologic features, recurrent infections, and enterocolitis. methods: A 14-year-old male C-HS patient was referred to us because of serious periodontal destruction with acute inflamed gingiva and ulcers. Clinical and biological investigations were performed, leading to the diagnosis of C-HS. RESULTS: Laboratory findings included neutropenia and hypergammaglobulinemia. Peripheral blood smears showed giant granules in neutrophils, eosinophils, and granulocytes. bone marrow smears showed giant inclusions in leukocyte precursor cells. These granules and inclusions were characteristic of chediak-higashi syndrome. Oral radiographic status showed extensive loss of alveolar bone leading, in most cases, to tooth exfoliation. bacteria often associated with periodontitis were detected in subgingival plaque samples, including fusobacterium nucleatum, campylobacter rectus, prevotella melaninogenica, peptostreptococcus anaerobius, and clostridium sp. Biopsies of periodontal tissues for light and electronic microscopic examinations revealed massive bacterial invasion of the epithelial tissue, epithelial cells, and connective tissue. Ultrastructural observations of periodontal polymorphonuclear leukocytes showed defective granulation, with abnormal granules not discharging their lysosomal content against engulfed bacteria. Viable dividing bacteria were found in the cytoplasm. CONCLUSIONS: In this case, early-onset periodontitis seems to be the expression of C-HS granulocyte deficiency. Periodontal treatment of these patients is often unsuccessful. This case report illustrates the importance of the dentist in initiating clinical and biological investigations in such early aggressive periodontitis in young patients.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = gingival
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8/55. Combined mechanical and antibiotic periodontal therapy in a case of Papillon-Lefevre syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: Papillon Lefevre syndrome (PLS) is a rare entity and, as such, it is almost impossible to evaluate an effective therapy in a randomized controlled study. The amount of success reported after therapy for prepubertal periodontitis (PP) in PLS is highly variable from case to case. The goal of this case report is to evaluate the effects of a combined mechanical and antibiotic periodontal therapy regimen in the management of PLS. methods: A male patient was diagnosed as suffering from PP associated with PLS at the age of 7 years. He showed hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, as well as advanced periodontal disease already affecting permanent teeth with maximal probing depth and vertical attachment loss of 12 mm and 11 mm, respectively. Subgingival debridement was performed with simultaneous administration of oral 250 mg amoxicillin 3 times daily and 250 mg metronidazole twice daily for one week. Clinical parameters were assessed and subgingival plaque was collected from all teeth prior to therapy and 7 and 26 months after treatment. Selective cultures for A. actinomycetemcomitans were incubated for each individual tooth and DNA probe analysis was performed for various periodontal pathogens. RESULTS: Prior to combined mechanical and antibiotic treatment, all teeth but one harbored actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans subgingivally. However, at 7 and 26 months after therapy A. actinomycetemcomitans could be detected neither by culture nor by dna probes. Clinical parameters improved markedly and teeth erupting after therapy did not exhibit attachment loss of more than 1.5 mm during the observation period. CONCLUSIONS: Eradication (suppression beneath detection levels) of A. actinomycetemcomitans seems to play a significant role in the successful treatment of localized prepubertal periodontitis in PLS.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = gingival
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9/55. Generalized cervical root resorption associated with periodontal disease.

    BACKGROUND AND DESCRIPTION OF CASE: The etiology and pathogenesis of generalized cervical root resorptions is not well understood. In the present report, a case of severe cervical root resorption involving 24 anterior and posterior teeth is presented. The lesions developed within a period of 2 years after the patient had changed to an acid-enriched diet. They extended far into the coronal dentin and were associated with gingival inflammation and crestal bone resorption. However, no generalized clinical attachment loss had occurred. Culturing of subgingival plaque revealed the presence of several putative periodontal pathogens among which actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and porphyromonas gingivalis. Treatment consisted of mechanical debridement supported by systemic antibiotics (amoxycillin plus metronidazole) and dietary advice. RESULTS: Within 1 year after the onset of treatment, all resorptive lesions had repaired by ingrowth of a radio-opaque mineralized tissue. The crestal areas showed radiological evidence of bone repair. 3 years after the onset of therapy, one premolar was extracted and examined histologically. It appeared that irregularly-shaped masses of woven bone-like tissue had invaded into the domain of the resorbed coronal dentin and were bordered by thin layers of acellular cementum. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that, in this patient, the cervical resorptions were likely the result of an osteoclastic response extending into the roots because the root-protective role of the junctional epithelium did not develop. We hypothesize that this was due to the combined effects of a periodontopathogenic microflora and a dietary confounding factor.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = gingival
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10/55. Oral diagnosis of Behcet disease in an eleven-year old girl and the non-surgical treatment of her gingival overgrowth caused by cyclosporine.

    A case of an eleven-year old girl with Behcet disease is presented. Non-surgical treatment of gingival overgrowth caused by the use of cyclosporine was successfully treated. This case emphasizes the need for cooperation between the medical and dental professionals and the responsibility of dental professionals to lead the diagnosis of systemic diseases like Behcet.
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ranking = 1.25
keywords = gingival
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