Cases reported "Dental Plaque"

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1/16. Features of severe periodontal disease in a teenager with chediak-higashi syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: chediak-higashi syndrome (C-HS) is a rare congenital disease characterized by defective neutrophil function with abnormal lysosomal inclusions, neutropenia, and reduced chemotaxis. The complete syndrome includes oculocutaneous albinism with photophobia, neurologic features, recurrent infections, and enterocolitis. methods: A 14-year-old male C-HS patient was referred to us because of serious periodontal destruction with acute inflamed gingiva and ulcers. Clinical and biological investigations were performed, leading to the diagnosis of C-HS. RESULTS: Laboratory findings included neutropenia and hypergammaglobulinemia. Peripheral blood smears showed giant granules in neutrophils, eosinophils, and granulocytes. bone marrow smears showed giant inclusions in leukocyte precursor cells. These granules and inclusions were characteristic of chediak-higashi syndrome. Oral radiographic status showed extensive loss of alveolar bone leading, in most cases, to tooth exfoliation. bacteria often associated with periodontitis were detected in subgingival plaque samples, including fusobacterium nucleatum, campylobacter rectus, prevotella melaninogenica, peptostreptococcus anaerobius, and clostridium sp. Biopsies of periodontal tissues for light and electronic microscopic examinations revealed massive bacterial invasion of the epithelial tissue, epithelial cells, and connective tissue. Ultrastructural observations of periodontal polymorphonuclear leukocytes showed defective granulation, with abnormal granules not discharging their lysosomal content against engulfed bacteria. Viable dividing bacteria were found in the cytoplasm. CONCLUSIONS: In this case, early-onset periodontitis seems to be the expression of C-HS granulocyte deficiency. Periodontal treatment of these patients is often unsuccessful. This case report illustrates the importance of the dentist in initiating clinical and biological investigations in such early aggressive periodontitis in young patients.
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2/16. Mandibular and maxillary furcation tunnel preparations--literature review and a case report.

    AIM: The objective of this literature review and subsequent case report is to discuss and illustrate the tunnel preparation procedure as a treatment alternative for furcation-involved molars. review OF THE literature: Furcation tunnel preparation, i.e., the creation of access for plaque control between periodontally diseased roots, has not been discussed in the literature as comprehensively as root resective therapy, though success rates appear to fall within the same range. A short root trunk and a wide furcation entrance diameter are prerequisites for the indication of the tunnel preparation procedure. Although accessory canals in the furcation area are frequent findings on extracted teeth, endodontic complications have not been reported to be major complications after tunnel preparation. Caries developed at tunneled teeth even under proper maintenance, but did not necessarily lead to the loss of an affected tooth. CASE REPORT: In the case presented to illustrate the indication for the tunnel preparation procedure, periodontal disease was almost entirely restricted to the furcation sites of molar teeth. Affected teeth were either extracted or left intact and subjected to tunneling procedures. Periodontal health could be established and maintained at both single and double tunnels over a period of 2 years of periodontal supportive therapy.
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3/16. Palatal radicular multigrooves associated with severe periodontal defects in maxillary central incisors.

    BACKGROUND: This case report describes a rare condition of palatal radicular multigrooves on teeth 11 and 21 with severe periodontal defects and the findings at 3-year follow-up. METHOD: Radiculoplasty using hand curettes and rotary burs were used to remove the multigrooves on the root surfaces and change the wrinkled root form to the relatively flat and smooth normal root morphology. Minor tooth movement and frenotomy were performed for a diastema between teeth 11 and 21. Supportive periodontal therapy started immediately after completion of the active treatment. RESULTS: Improved healthy periodontal tissues and adequate plaque control have been maintained.
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4/16. Combined mechanical and antibiotic periodontal therapy in a case of Papillon-Lefevre syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: Papillon Lefevre syndrome (PLS) is a rare entity and, as such, it is almost impossible to evaluate an effective therapy in a randomized controlled study. The amount of success reported after therapy for prepubertal periodontitis (PP) in PLS is highly variable from case to case. The goal of this case report is to evaluate the effects of a combined mechanical and antibiotic periodontal therapy regimen in the management of PLS. methods: A male patient was diagnosed as suffering from PP associated with PLS at the age of 7 years. He showed hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, as well as advanced periodontal disease already affecting permanent teeth with maximal probing depth and vertical attachment loss of 12 mm and 11 mm, respectively. Subgingival debridement was performed with simultaneous administration of oral 250 mg amoxicillin 3 times daily and 250 mg metronidazole twice daily for one week. Clinical parameters were assessed and subgingival plaque was collected from all teeth prior to therapy and 7 and 26 months after treatment. Selective cultures for A. actinomycetemcomitans were incubated for each individual tooth and DNA probe analysis was performed for various periodontal pathogens. RESULTS: Prior to combined mechanical and antibiotic treatment, all teeth but one harbored actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans subgingivally. However, at 7 and 26 months after therapy A. actinomycetemcomitans could be detected neither by culture nor by dna probes. Clinical parameters improved markedly and teeth erupting after therapy did not exhibit attachment loss of more than 1.5 mm during the observation period. CONCLUSIONS: Eradication (suppression beneath detection levels) of A. actinomycetemcomitans seems to play a significant role in the successful treatment of localized prepubertal periodontitis in PLS.
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5/16. Periodontal concerns associated with the orthodontic treatment of impacted teeth.

    Impacted teeth are common and are often treated with orthodontic eruption, but periodontal problems associated with the process can evade detection. Profound destruction of the periodontium of an impacted tooth or adjacent teeth can occur. This case report describes the orthodontic eruption of 4 impacted canines in a 19-year-old woman. An open surgical approach was used. Within 6 months of treatment, the maxillary right canine and the lateral incisor experienced severe periodontal destruction, resulting in questionable prognoses for the teeth. Plaque control, periodontal architecture, and subgingival microflora were examined as local etiologic factors of periodontal destruction associated with orthodontic eruption of impacted teeth. Plaque control measures were evaluated, and the consequences of orthodontic tooth movement in the presence of inadequate plaque control were considered. Areas of periodontal architecture made vulnerable by the surgical exposure of the impacted teeth were identified, and the effect of orthodontic force on the periodontium was explored. An increase in putative periopathogens in the subgingival microflora after orthodontic appliance placement was observed. Microbiologic monitoring for pathologic levels of periopathogens and antibiotic therapy were considered. Orthodontic treatment of impacted teeth might require additional professional and personal plaque control measures, 3-dimensional diagnostic imaging, and control of putative periopathogens to preserve the health of the periodontium.
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6/16. Clinical and microbiological changes in a child with rapid alveolar bone loss and refill.

    A 10-year-old Japanese girl with severe tooth mobility in her lower permanent incisors was examined clinically, as well as radiographic and microbiological means. The incisors had severe alveolar bond loss and pocket depths exceeding 7 mm at the first visit, however, 10 periodontal bacteria were not detected in subgingival plaque samples taken from the lower central incisors using a 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction method. Periodontal treatment consisting of mechanical debridement and antibiltic medication resulted in a significant improvement of the clinical parameters. Three months after the first examination, dental radiographs showed refilling of alveolar bone in the region. Further, microbiological examinations after remission detected only oral microflora commonly found in health children including A. actinomycetemcomitans. Based on the clinical, readiographic, and microbiological findings, the present case was diagnosed as acute periodontitis.
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7/16. Langerhans' cell histiocytosis in a 5-year-old girl: evidence of periodontal pathogens.

    BACKGROUND: Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder characterized by Langerhans' cell proliferation in various organs or tissues. When periodontal tissue is involved, clinical manifestations can vary from gingival recession and pocket formation to severe alveolar bone loss. This case report describes periodontal pathogens found in the pockets of involved primary teeth. methods: A 5-year-old girl with LCH presented with loose teeth. Intraoral examination and radiographs revealed deep pockets and severe bone loss around all primary molars. Bacterial samples were obtained from saliva and subgingival plaque and analyzed for the presence of five periodontopathic bacteria using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Due to severe periodontal destruction, all primary molars were extracted, and a gingival biopsy was taken from tooth T to confirm the diagnosis of LCH. RESULTS: The biopsy specimen revealed the histologic features of LCH. The patient was diagnosed as having periodontitis as a manifestation of LCH. PCR results of subgingival plaque from LCH-affected molars indicated the presence of porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, treponema denticola, and prevotella intermedia. However, actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was absent from these teeth. No tested bacteria were found in the non-affected anterior teeth. CONCLUSIONS: The bacteria commonly associated with periodontal disease were detected in subgingival plaque samples from this LCH patient. More microbiological data are required to understand the role of these bacteria in LCH-associated periodontal destruction.
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8/16. Periodontal therapy in siblings with Papillon-Lefevre syndrome and tinea capitis: a report of two cases.

    OBJECTIVE: Report of clinical and microbiological periodontal findings before and 6 months after treatment of two siblings with Papillon-Lefevre syndrome (PLS) and tinea capitis. methods: Two brothers, RG 3 years and NG 5 years of age, were referred for treatment due to premature mobility of their deciduous teeth. Probing depths (PPD), attachment levels (PAL-V), and furcation involvements were examined clinically. Panoramic radiographs were taken. Subgingival plaque samples within the deepest pocket of each tooth were taken and analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (AA), porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, treponema denticola, fusobacterium nucleatum, and prevotella intermedia. One-stage full-mouth scaling and extraction of hopeless teeth were performed under general anaesthesia, followed by systemic amoxicillin and metronidazole for 7 days. Clinical and microbiological analyses were performed 6 months after treatment. RESULTS: Before treatment, both siblings had exhibited PPD of up to 13 mm, Class III furcation defects at four teeth, and marginal suppuration. AA was detected in both patients and at all teeth at levels ranging from 3.0 x 10(2) to 5.1 x 10(6). Both patients exhibited palmar and plantar hyperkeratosis. Seven teeth were extracted from RG, and nine from NG. Six months after treatment, PPD had been reduced to patients can be treated successfully. Suppression of AA to below detection level seems to be of high significance.
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9/16. orthodontics and inadequate oral hygiene compliance as a combined cause of localized gingival recession: a case report.

    This case report describes a patient in whom orthodontic treatment and poor oral hygiene resulted in a severe mucogingival problem associated with a mandibular incisor tooth. Following mucogingival surgery, the esthetic and the oral hygiene maintenance problems were resolved. Orthodontic treatment carried out without periodontal consideration may, in some cases, jeopardize the final result.
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10/16. Asymmetrical dental caries and streptococcus mutans infection.

    A 27-year-old woman chewed unilaterally and had restorations and caries only on the right side of the dentition. The left side had a greater amount of soft and hard deposits and more severe periodontal disease. Plaque samples from occlusal and interproximal tooth surfaces were collected and cultured. The proportion of streptococcus mutans of the total anaerobic count in the plaque samples from the right side was 1,000 to 10,000 times as high as from the left side. The proportion of S mutans of the total streptococcus was 6% to 20% on the right and less than 1% on the left side.
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