Cases reported "Dermatitis, Atopic"

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1/317. The benefit of patch testing with a corticosteroid at a low concentration.

    BACKGROUND: Patch testing with corticosteroid marker molecules is advocated because testing with all available corticosteroids is impossible in clinical practice. Most commonly used are budesonide, tixocortol pivalate, and hydrocortisone-17-butyrate. We have been patch testing not only with the three markers, but also with two corticosteroid mixes, each consisting of different concentrations of the three markers. OBJECTIVE: We describe a patient allergic to tixocortol pivalate, who was diagnosed by using a lower patch test concentration that recommended, 0.1% in petrolatum, as well as a weak corticosteroid mix, 0.202%. methods: The patient was patch tested to a standard series, including the two corticosteroid mixes and its three constituents. RESULTS: None of the corticosteroid preparations were positive on the first ordinary reading day, day 3, whereas both tixocortol pivalate at 0.1% and the corticosteriod mix at 0.202% were positive on the second ordinary reading day, day 7, whereas all tested corticosteroids in the standard series gave positive reactions on d10. CONCLUSION: The possible benefit of patch testing with a corticosteroid at a low concentration is supported, as is the significance of late readings beyond D4. ( info)

2/317. Markedly high eosinophilia and an elevated serum IL-5 level in an infant with cow milk allergy.

    BACKGROUND: interleukin-5 (IL-5) promotes the production and function of eosinophils, and an increase in the serum soluble CD23 (sCD23) level is suggestive of enhanced type-2 helper T-cell activity. The secretion of a large amount of the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a), has been reported to alter the intestinal barrier capacity. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether or not distinct profiles of cytokine production were involved in the marked peripheral eosinophilia of as high as 20,000/mm3 and the gastrointestinal symptoms seen in an infant with cow milk allergy. methods: The levels of IL-5, sCD23, and TNF-alpha in serum and the culture supernatants of mononuclear cells were compared with those in infants with anaphylaxis to cow milk and nonallergic infants. RESULTS: interleukin-5 was detected in the serum (19 pg/mL) but became undetectable after 2 weeks on a milk-free diet together with clinical remission. A kinetic decrease in the serum sCD23 level was also observed during the administration of a milk-free diet with improvement of the eosinophilia in 2 months. The TNF-alpha produced in vitro after stimulation with cow milk protein was not different from in controls. CONCLUSION: It seems likely that the allergic inflammation due to cow milk can induce marked eosinophilia with an associated increase in IL-5 production. ( info)

3/317. Acute infection with trichophyton rubrum associated with flares of atopic dermatitis.

    trichophyton rubrum has been implicated as a potential trigger in flares of atopic dermatitis. We describe a patient with atopic dermatitis who presented with a history of multiple flares and concurrent acute tinea pedis and onychomycosis. Symptoms of atopic dermatitis and culture-positive acute infection with T. rubrum resolved during each flare using systemic antifungals. Flares of atopic dermatitis may be triggered by acute T. rubrum infections. Antifungal therapy should be considered in these patients. ( info)

4/317. sezary syndrome in a young man with severe atopic dermatitis.

    sezary syndrome (SS) is a rare cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. SS usually develops de novo. We describe a 23-year-old man with a proven history of severe atopic dermatitis since childhood, who developed SS. This case contributes to the discussion about the possibility of a relationship between inflammatory dermatitis, atopy and subsequent SS. We provide criteria that should be fulfilled to define such an association. ( info)

5/317. quality of life improvement in a patient with severe atopic dermatitis treated with photopheresis.

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disease characterized by severely pruritic eczematous patches, papular and lichenified plaques, excoriations, cracks, and erosions. photopheresis has been shown to ameliorate the signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis in some patients. We describe successful results with photopheresis for refractory disease in a patient who chronicled his quality of life weekly for more than 15 years before and during extracorporeal photochemotherapy. ( info)

6/317. latex allergy in atopic children.

    The incidence of positive circulating specific immunoglobulin e (IgE) antibodies to latex and evidence of clinical latex sensitivity appears to be increasing since its first description in 1979. Although heightened medical awareness may be a factor, exposure to latex products, particularly rubber gloves, has increased since the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). Atopic individuals are at greater risk of developing latex sensitivity. We identified seven children with atopic eczema who were known to have clinically significant latex allergy and examined the relationship of prior exposure to latex gloves. All children had significant serum levels of specific IgE to latex. Before developing clinical symptoms of latex allergy, all had been exposed to latex in the form of gloves during either inpatient or outpatient treatments of their skin. Exposure of atopic individuals to latex gloves could be a major risk factor for sensitization and could increase the incidence of serious reactions. ( info)

7/317. Degradation products of monoterpenes are the sensitizing agents in tea tree oil.

    BACKGROUND: patients using tea tree oil (TTO) topically may become sensitized to this natural remedy. More than 30 cases have been documented in the literature since 1991. OBJECTIVE: Freshly distilled, as well as oxidized TTO, some fractions, and single constituents were used for experimental sensitization in guinea pigs. TTO was stored on a window sill to study the influence of light, oxygen, and warmth. The oxidized oil and different fractions were devoted to experimental sensitization in guinea pigs to determine their sensitizing potency. Fifteen constituents were patch tested in TTO-sensitive patients to find how many may play a role as contact allergens. methods: guinea pigs were sensitized by a modified FCA-method (Freund's complete adjuvant) with freshly distilled TTO, oxidized TTO, the monoterpene and sesquiterpene fraction, and 1, 8-cineole. TTO-sensitive patients were tested with 15 typical constituents and degradation products. Gas chromatographic analysis was used to detect degradation products of the deteriorated TTO. RESULTS: Fresh TTO was revealed to be a very weak sensitizing material whereas oxidized TTO was 3 times stronger. The monoterpene fraction showed to be a stronger sensitizer than the sesquiterpene fraction. All 11 patients reacted mostly with a -plus or even a -plus reaction to alpha-terpinene, terpinolene and ascaridol. alpha-Phellandrene became positive in four patients, myrcene in only two. Gas chromatographic analyses showed that the formation of peroxides increased within 4 days from less than 50 to more than 500 ppm. peroxides, epoxides and endoperoxides were formed. Deterioration products of alpha-terpinene were found to be mainly p-cymene, ascaridol, isoascaridol, a ketoperoxide, and colorless crystals that likely were 1,2,4-trihydroxy menthane. The p-cymene content increased dramatically from 2% to 11.5%. alpha- and gamma-terpinene, as well as terpinolene, were reduced to one half of their former concentration. Ascaridol and isoascaridol have never before been found in TTO. CONCLUSION: tea tree oil kept in open and closed bottles or other containers undergoes photooxidation within a few days to several months, leading to the creation of degradation products that are moderate to strong sensitizers. peroxides, epoxides and endoperoxides, like ascaridol and 1,2,4-trihydroxy menthane, are formed. These must be considered responsible for the development of allergic contact dermatitis seen in individuals treating themselves with the oil. A test series with 15 characteristic constituents is recommended for patch testing. ( info)

8/317. Rush immunotherapy in a dog with severe ragweed and grass pollen allergy.

    BACKGROUND: Forty years of study of naturally occurring IgE-mediated allergy in animals is briefly reviewed. These studies provided models for study of bioactive mediators and innovative pharmacologic therapies for IgE-mediated asthma. Objective: Based on our experience with canine allergy we evaluated and treated a dog with severe grass and ragweed allergy whose allergic dermatitis was uncontrolled by H1 blockers and topical corticosteroids. The dog was miserable during the chicago grass and ragweed pollen seasons. methods: Rush immunotherapy was initiated during the ragweed season of 1997. RESULTS: Dramatic improvement was seen which persisted through the grass and ragweed seasons of 1998 after maintenance immunotherapy. CONCLUSION: The case is presented not as a model for canine immunotherapy but as an example of how animal research can be of value to both animals and humans. ( info)

9/317. T-lymphocyte cytokine profiles in compositae airborne dermatitis.

    Compositae airborne dermatitis is a well-recognized disorder characterized by erythematosquamous lesions and papules on light-exposed areas. The presence of positive patch test reactions and the absence of specific serum IgE suggest delayed-type hypersensitivity, the murine model of which is characterized by a Th1 cytokine production profile [high amounts of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2; little or no IL-4 and IL-5]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytokine profile of T-cell lines and T-cell clones from peripheral blood in a 38-year-old non-atopic male woodcutter affected by seasonal airborne contact dermatitis. The patient showed positive patch test reactions to several Compositae extracts (achillea millefolium, Chamomilla recutita, tanacetum parthenium, T. vulgare) and sesquiterpene lactone mix. On prick testing with Compositae and other plants, serum-specific IgE levels and phototesting were negative or normal. Allergen-specific T-cell lines produced with Compositae extracts showed a good in vitro cell proliferation only to C. recutita extract. Serial cloning performed using the C. recutita-specific T-cell lines revealed an alphabeta CD4 phenotype with high amounts of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in T-cell clones. Thus, these cells expressed a preferential Th0 phenotype. These data suggest that in addition to IFN-gamma, other T-cell derived cytokines, such as IL-4, may play a part in the immunopathogenesis of contact dermatitis. ( info)

10/317. Prominent pruritic periumbilical papules: A diagnostic sign in pediatric atopic dermatitis.

    Establishment of diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis has been a subject of controversy and frequent reevaluation. The diagnostic criteria of Hanifin and Rajka are those most frequently cited. In order to fit the diagnosis, a patient must demonstrate three major criteria plus four or more minor criteria. Although individually the minor criteria are not diagnostic, their presence suggests the possibility of atopic dermatitis. Recently we evaluated several children who developed prominent periumbilical papules as a major component of their atopic dermatitis. This finding, while not present in all children with atopic dermatitis, can provide a specific clue to diagnosis and should be considered as a new minor criterion for atopic dermatitis in children. ( info)
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