Cases reported "Dermatitis, Contact"

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1/73. T cell involvement in persulfate triggered occupational contact dermatitis and asthma.

    BACKGROUND: Ammonium and potassium persulfates may induce a variety of cutaneous and respiratory diseases. The precise underlying mechanisms, however, are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To describe a hairdresser, who developed contact dermatitis, rhinoconjuntivitis, and bronchial asthma of delayed onset after occupational exposure to hair bleaches containing persulfate salts and to provide evidence for a common T-cell mediated mechanism responsible for the clinical manifestations. methods: We performed skin testing, routine histologic and immunohistochemical examination of the skin reaction after prick testing, lymphocyte proliferation analysis, nasal challenge test, and pulmonary function testing. RESULTS: The causative role of bleaching powder and ammonium persulfate was demonstrated by case history, skin tests, and a nasal challenge test. patch tests produced a delayed cutaneous reaction to ammonium persulfate confirming contact sensitization. Prick tests with bleaching powder and ammonium persulfate were negative at 15 minutes but revealed a late skin reaction with a papule at the prick sites after 24 hours. Histologic examination of this late reaction demonstrated a perivascular infiltration comprising predominantly T lymphocytes. Further, a significant proliferation of T cells to bleaching powder was reproducibly found by a lymphocyte proliferation analysis. Nasal challenge test with bleaching powder showed a significant reduction of air flow after 24 hours. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that immunologic mechanism with direct involvement of T cells may not only play an important role in the pathogenesis of the cutaneous but also in the respiratory and rhinoconjunctival reactions.
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keywords = occupational exposure, exposure
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2/73. Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.

    We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized.
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ranking = 0.013621366479509
keywords = exposure
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3/73. Occupational asthma and contact dermatitis in a spray painter after introduction of an aziridine cross-linker.

    A 23-year-old spray painter developed contact dermatitis and respiratory difficulty characterized by small airways obstruction shortly after the polyfunctional aziridine cross-linker CX-100 began to be used in his workplace as a paint activator. The symptoms resolved after he was removed from the workplace and was treated with inhaled and topical steroids. Painters may have an increased risk of asthma due to exposure to a variety of agents, such as isocyanates, alkyd resins, and chromates. This case illustrates the importance of using appropriate work practices and personal protective equipment to minimize exposure. Occupational asthma is diagnosed by a history of work-related symptoms and exposure to known causative agents. The diagnosis is confirmed by serial pulmonary function testing or inhalational challenge testing. The risk of asthma attributable to occupational exposures is probably underappreciated due to underreporting and to inappropriate use of narrow definitions of exposure in epidemiologic studies of attributable risk.
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ranking = 1.054485465918
keywords = occupational exposure, exposure
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4/73. Too hot to handle: an unusual exposure of HDI in specialty painters.

    BACKGROUND: Hexamethylene Diisocyanate (HDI) is a color stable aliphatic isocyanate that is used in specialty paints as a hardener. Due to the lower vapor pressure of its commercial biuret form, it is considered a relatively "safe" isocyanate from an exposure standpoint. This case series reports on an unusual toxic exposure to HDI. Between November 1993 and May 1994, seven specialty painters and one boiler maker who were working at three different power plants were examined at the Institute of Occupational and environmental health at west virginia University. At their respective work sites, HDI was applied to the hot surfaces of boilers that were not shut down, and allowed sufficient time to cool. Consequently, these workers were exposed to volatile HDI and its thermal decomposition products. methods: All of these workers underwent a complete physical examination, spirometry, and methacholine challenge testing. RESULTS: All 8 workers complained of dyspnea, while 4 of the 8 also complained of rash. On examination 3 workers were methacholine challenge positive and 2 had persistent rash. At follow-up 4 years later, 5 workers still had to use inhalation medication and one had progressive asthma and dermatitis. All 8 workers, by the time of the follow-up, had gone through economic and occupational changes. CONCLUSIONS: This case series reports on an unusual exposure to HDI. It is unusual in that: 1) There were two simultaneous sentinel cases with two different material safety data sheets (MSDS) for the same product, 2) Exposure was to volatile HDI and its decomposition products and 3) Hazardous conditions of exposure occurred at three different sites.
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ranking = 0.10897093183607
keywords = exposure
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5/73. Mercury exposure and cutaneous disease.

    Human contact with mercury has been ongoing for centuries and was previously considered a legitimate means of treating different cutaneous and systemic conditions. Toxicity from this heavy metal may occur from exposure to elemental, inorganic, and organic forms of mercury. This article outlines the signs and symptoms of mercury poisoning and the different clinical conditions with assorted cutaneous findings.
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ranking = 0.068106832397545
keywords = exposure
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6/73. Severe cutaneous reaction to CS gas.

    Tear gas is used throughout the World for control of riots and civil disobedience. CS gas as used by the UK police force is issued as a 'spray' and is 5% CS in methylisobutylketone (MIBK), a potent irritant. Assaults on police officers in forces issued with CS spray have fallen significantly over the past 3 years, whilst having risen in areas without it. Thus, CS gas appears to be an effective deterrent. However, significant cutaneous reactions can occur as a result of exposure. We report a severe contact dermatitis to CS gas to highlight the clinical features. The nature of CS gas and potential cutaneous adverse reactions are discussed.
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ranking = 0.013621366479509
keywords = exposure
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7/73. copper allergy from dental copper amalgam?

    A 65-year-old female was investigated due to a gradually increasing greenish colour change of her plastic dental splint, which she used to prevent teeth grinding when sleeping. Furthermore, she had noted a greenish/bluish colour change on the back of her black gloves, which she used to wipe her tears away while walking outdoors. The investigation revealed that the patient had a contact allergy to copper, which is very rare. She had, however, had no occupational exposure to copper. The contact allergy may be caused by long-term exposure of the oral mucosa to copper from copper-rich amalgam fillings, which were frequently used in childhood dentistry up to the 1960s in sweden. The deposition of a copper-containing coating on the dental splint may be caused by a raised copper intake from drinking water, increasing the copper excretion in saliva, in combination with release of copper due to electrochemical corrosion of dental amalgam. The greenish colour change of the surface of the splint is probably caused by deposition of a mixture of copper compounds, e.g. copper carbonates. Analysis by the x-ray diffraction technique indicates that the dominant component is copper oxide (Cu2O and CuO). The corresponding greenish/bluish discoloration observed on the back of the patient's gloves may be caused by increased copper excretion in tears.
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ranking = 1.0136213664795
keywords = occupational exposure, exposure
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8/73. Primary acquired cold urticaria.

    Primary acquired cold urticaria (ACU) is the most common type of cold urticaria characterized by rapid onset of pruritic hives, swelling, and possible severe systemic reactions including hypotension and shock after cold exposure. Primary ACU is diagnosed by history of such symptoms, a positive immediate cold-contact stimulation test, and negative laboratory evaluation for underlying systemic disorders. Clinicians should be aware that patients with ACU may be susceptible to life-threatening systemic reactions especially during aquatic activities and that proper patient education is extremely important. This article reviews the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of primary ACU.
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ranking = 0.013621366479509
keywords = exposure
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9/73. dermatitis caused by dimethyl cyanocarbonimidodithioate.

    Dimethyl cyanocarbonimidodithioate (CAS No. 10191-60-3) a raw material for cimetidine synthesis, is labelled as an irritant on its storage tank. There is no information available regarding the toxic effects of human exposure. We report a case of severe dermatitis clinically resembling erythema multiforme following an accidental exposure to dimethyl cyanocarbonimidodithioate in an occupational setting. A clerk sifted a handful of dimethyl cyanocarbonimidodithioate from an unlabelled bucket through his bare hands during an inspection prior to customs clearance. Five hours later, while he was washing his hands, pruritus, erythema and vesicles developed over the exposed area. The skin condition worsened within two weeks, extending to his whole body with generalized erythema and vesicles of various sizes. Some vesicles became confluent with ruptured bullae, resembling a second degree burn over 40% of the body. Elevation of the serum IgE (705 mu/mL, normal less than 300 mu/mL) and lymphocyte activation with an increased 3H-thymidine uptake by the patient's mononuclear cells suggested that this episode resulted from a cell-mediated allergic skin reaction. The skin lesions improved progressively after systemic steroid therapy for about two weeks. Dimethyl cyanocarbonimidodithioate is used as a raw material for cimetidine synthesis by some pharmaceutical manufacturers. Our experience suggests that a severe reaction similar to that caused by another H2-blocker, ranitidine and its intermediate may be caused by dimethyl cyanocarbonimidodithioate in occupational exposures. Systemic steroid administration is beneficial in treatment.
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ranking = 0.040864099438527
keywords = exposure
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10/73. Allergic contact dermatitis from cardamom.

    A case is presented of a confectioner with a chronic hand dermatitis and positive patch test reactions to cardamom and certain terpenoid compounds present in the dried ripe seeds of cardamom. Cardamom is a popular traditional flavouring agent for baked goods and confectionery. dermatitis from skin exposure to cardamom has to the best of our knowledge not been reported. We report one case of allergic contact dermatitis to cardamom elicited by terpenes present in the seeds.
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ranking = 0.013621366479509
keywords = exposure
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