Cases reported "DiGeorge Syndrome"

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1/71. Partial digeorge syndrome in two patients with a 10p rearrangement.

    We describe 2 patients with a partial digeorge syndrome (facial dysmorphism, hypoparathyroidism, renal agenesis, mental retardation) and a rearrangement of chromosome 10p. The first patient carries a complex chromosomal rearrangement, with a reciprocal insertional translocation between the short arm of chromosome 10 and the long arm of chromosome 8, with karyotype 46, XY ins(8;10) (8pter 8q13::10p15-->10p14::8q24.1-->8qter) ins(10:8) (10pter--> 10p15::8q24.1-->8q13::10p14-->10qter). The karyotype of the second patient shows a terminal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 10. In both patients, the breakpoints on chromosome 10p reside outside the previously determined DiGeorge critical region II (DGCRII). This is in agreement with previous reports of patients with a terminal deletion of 10p with breakpoints distal to the DGCRII and renal malformations/hypoparathyroidism, and thus adds to evidence that these features may be caused by haploinsufficiency of one or more genes distal to the DGCRII.
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2/71. CATCH 22 syndrome: report of 7 infants with follow-up data and review of the recent advancements in the genetic knowledge of the locus 22q11.

    CATCH 22 is a medical acronym for Cardiac defects, Abnormal facies, Thymic hypoplasia, cleft palate, and hypocalcemia, and a variable deletion on chromosome 22. The deletion within the chromosome region of 22q11 may occur in patients with three well-described dysmorphologic cardiological syndromes: digeorge syndrome (DGS), velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), and conotruncal anomaly face syndrome (CTAFS). We report in detail seven infants with a deletion of the locus 22q11 showing overlapping clinical features of DGS and CTAFS with complex congenital heart defects (double outlet right ventricle, atresia or stenosis of the pulmonary valve, atrial and ventricular septal defects, patent ductus arteriosus, tetralogy of fallot, major aortopulmonary collateral arteries, arcus aortae dexter, and persistence of the left superior vena cava). A homograft was implanted between the right ventricle and the main stem of the pulmonary artery in 2 patients, while a balloon valvuloplastic of the pulmonary valve was performed in one patient only. Pulmonary hemorrhage, acute hypoxia, and aspergillus pneumonia were the complications. death occurred in three out of seven patients. Recent advancements in the genetic knowledge of the locus 22q11 are described. Since the locus 22q11 is highly heterogeneous, the CATCH 22 acronym should be used and temporarily the old eponyms should be abandoned waiting for the identification of the different genes.
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3/71. Atypical deletions suggest five 22q11.2 critical regions related to the DiGeorge/velo-cardio-facial syndrome.

    Deletions of chromosome 22q11.2 have been associated with distinct phenotypes including digeorge syndrome (DGS) and velo-cardio-facial (VCFS) syndrome. These diseases result from a failure to form derivatives of the third and fourth branchial arches during development. DGS/VCFS deletions usually encompass about 3 Mb of genomic dna in more than 90% of patients. However, deletion mapping studies have failed to demonstrate the existence of a single small region of overlap (SRO) and ruled out any obvious correlation between site or size of deletion and severity of clinical phenotype. We describe three patients carrying 'atypical' deletions presenting the DGS/VCFS phenotype. A comparative analysis of deletions in our patients and those previously published has suggested the existence of five distinct critical regions within the 22q11.2 locus. This observation argues that DGS/VCFS results from haploinsufficiency secondary to a complex and as yet unexplained molecular mechanism, probably involving chromatin effects in mediating gene expression throughout the entire region.
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4/71. Dual-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization assay for detecting deletions associated with VCFS/digeorge syndrome I and digeorge syndrome II loci.

    Over 90% of patients with digeorge syndrome (DGS) or velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) have a microdeletion at 22q11.2. Given that these deletions are difficult to visualize at the light microscopic level, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been instrumental in the diagnosis of this disorder. Deletions on the short arm of chromosome 10 are also associated with a DGS-like phenotype. Since deletions at 22q11.2 and at 10p13p14 result in similar findings, we have developed a dual-probe FISH assay for screening samples referred for DGS or VCFS in the clinical laboratory. This assay includes two test probes for the loci, DGSI at 22q11.2 and DGSII at 10p13p14, and centromeric probes for chromosomes 10 and 22. Of 412 patients tested, 54 were found to be deleted for the DGSI locus on chromosome 22 (13%), and a single patient was found deleted for the DGSII locus on chromosome 10 (0. 24%). The patient with the 10p deletion had facial features consistent with VCFS, plus sensorineural hearing loss, and renal anomalies. cytogenetic analysis showed a large deletion of 10p [46, XX,del(10)(p12.2p14)] and FISH using a 10p telomere region-specific probe confirmed the interstitial nature of the deletion. Analysis for the DGSI and the DGSII loci suggests that the deletion of the DGSII locus on chromosome 10 may be 50 times less frequent than the deletion of DGSI on chromosome 22. The incidence of deletions at 22q11.2 has been estimated to be 1 in 4000 newborns; therefore, the deletion at 10p13p14 may be estimated to occur in 1 in 200,000 live births.
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5/71. digeorge syndrome with Graves' disease: A case report.

    digeorge syndrome (DGS) is characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the thymus and parathyroid glands, cardiac defects and anomaly face. This syndrome is usually associated with hypocalcemia resulting from hypoparathyroidism. In most cases the initial symptom is tetany caused by hypocalcemia within 24-48 hours after birth, with symptoms by immune abnormality appearing later. We report a woman who passed with no symptoms before age 18 and was diagnosed digeorge syndrome by tetany with developing auto-immune thyroid disease (Graves' disease). She had surgery for intraventricular septal defect at age 3, hypoparathyroidism, decrease of T cells in peripheral blood and the deletion of the 22nd chromosome long arm (22q11.2). It is supposed that abnormalities of immune function of this case are not complete as indicated by complicating of Graves' disease, and contributing to her long-term survival.
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6/71. Inv dup(22), del(22)(q11) and r(22) in the father of a child with digeorge syndrome.

    We here report a unique inherited case of digeorge syndrome. The asymptomatic father had a mosaic karyotype with a 21q11 deletion in three different cell lines. In two of the cell lines there was an additional supernumerary inv dup(22) or an r(22), respectively. In the third cell line the del(22) was the sole anomaly. FISH analysis showed that both the inv dup(22) and the r(22) included the DGS region. We hypothesize that an inter-chromosomal recombination between inverted repeats, together with a recombination between sister chromatids during meiosis I, gave rise to a deletion of 22q11 as well as an inv dup(22) containing the DGS region. The inv dup(22) was later rearranged into a ring chromosome during mitosis which was subsequently lost during cell division, thereby resulting in three different cell lines. This is the first case reported with an inv dup(22) and a del(22)(q11) in the same cell line. Our findings support a related mechanism in the formation of these two rearrangements mediated by low-copy repeats.
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7/71. Isolated innominate artery in 22q11 microdeletion.

    A patient with an isolated left innominate artery (with a right-sided cervical aortic arch) is described. This is the first report of such an anomaly associated with chromosome 22q11 microdeletion. The abnormality represents an interruption in the primitive aortic arch that is atypical for this chromosome deletion.
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8/71. Clinical and immunological spectrum of partial digeorge syndrome.

    We present four cases of digeorge syndrome diagnosed at our center. Onset occurred during the neonatal period and was associated with severe congenital heart disease. In case 1, the patient had heart disease and absence of thymus. Total t-lymphocytes were 34%; total T4-lymphocytes were 27%. Stimulation test with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin a (conA) and pokeweed mitogen were negative. Microdeletion was found in the chromosome 22q11 region. The second case involved heart disease, microstomia, round and rotated ears and branchial cyst. Total t-lymphocytes were 38% and total T4-lymphocytes 27%. Thymus was absent. Microdeletion in the chromosome 22q11 region. Case 3 showed heart disease, renal malformation, absence of thymus and parathyroid gland. The patient died 5 days postsurgery. Microdeletion was seen at chromosome 22q11. In the fourth case there was heart disease, microretrognathia, hypertelorism, short neck, absence of thymus and parathyroid glands. Total t-lymphocytes were 22%, total T4-lymphocytes 15%, and total T lymphocytes for pokeweed mitogen were negative. Microdeletion was found at chromosome 22q11. At the age of 13 days the patient died. The cases were recorded during a 2-year period, between 1997 and 1998. The prevalence of digeorge syndrome in the number of admissions for congenital heart disease among the neonates at our hospital was 3.14%. Presentation in the form of repeated infections is rare, since most cases of digeorge syndrome are partial, and functional cellular immunity is preserved.
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9/71. Molecular characterization of tetralogy of fallot within Digeorge critical region of the chromosome 22.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the levels of heterozygosity and microdeletion of specific loci within the DiGeorge critical region (del22q11) are associated with different phenotypes of tetralogy of fallot (TF). Examinations were conducted on 84 sporadic TF patients and their unaffected parents for del22q11, using the following 9 simple tandem repeat polymorphic microsatellite markers: D22S420, D22S427, D22S941, D22S944, D22S264, D22S311, D22S425, D22S303, D22S257. The microdeletions were confirmed using quantitative PCR with markers TUPLE1, exon 2 of the UFD1L gene, and D22S264; the boundaries of these microdeletions were estimated using genotypic analyses of the unaffected family members. The del22q11 was identified in 14 patients (16.6%). The boundary of the shortest region of deletion overlap (SRO) in these 14 TF patients was identified, proximally using D22S427 and distally using the TUPLE 1 gene. The deletion of exon 2 of the UFD1L gene and TUPLE1 gene was identified in 13 patients (13/14 cases; 93%). The SRO in TF patients with del22q11 was at or close to the ADU breakpoint and centromeric to the UFD1L gene. The level of heterozygosity for the marker D22S944 in TF patients without del22q11 (n = 70) was found to be significantly lower than expected. overall, this study demonstrated the significantly low level of heterozygosity within DiGeorge critical region in TF patients with or without del22q11. Our results suggest that the genetic factors leading to DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome might also be partly responsible for TF phenotypes.
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10/71. Juvenile idiopathic polyarticular arthritis and iga deficiency in the 22q11 deletion syndrome.

    Five patients with the 22q11 deletion syndrome (velocardiofacial syndrome) developed chronic inflammatory polyarticular arthritis. These new cases add to 8 previously reported and confirm the association. The arthritis in all cases was moderate to severe, but at least partially responsive to methotrexate and/or corticosteroids, and was clinically indistinguishable from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Analysis of the total 13 patients indicates that 2 are rheumatoid factor positive, 6 are antinuclear antibody positive, 5 have subtle T cell deficiencies, and 6 have hypergammaglobulinemia. Of particular interest is the occurrence of iga deficiency in 4 patients, including 2 from our own series. Although iga deficiency is seen in both JIA (2-4%) and 22q11 deletion syndrome (2-4%), the prevalence of low IgA in this series (31%) is much greater than expected. This phenomenon and the true association of inflammatory arthritis and a chromosome deletion disorder provides further evidence of important genetic factors in the pathogenesis of JIA.
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