Cases reported "DiGeorge Syndrome"

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11/71. DiGeorge sequence with hypogammaglobulinemia: a case report.

    The most common immunodeficiency in DiGeorge sequence patients is defects in T-cell production due to insufficient thymic tissue. However, because t-lymphocytes are important in regulating antibody responses, DiGeorge sequence is no longer regarded as a pure deficiency of cellular immunity but also a form of variable-combined immunodeficiency. Here we presented a 4-month-old male infant with characteristic facial dysmorphism, thymus dysplasia, tetralogy of fallot, and documented deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 who had decrease B-lymphocyte numbers and hypogammaglobulinemia. The mitogen responses of t-lymphocytes function were normal with adequate number of CD4 lymphocytes. This case report highlights the importance of evaluating not only the cellular but also the humoral immune function in patients with DiGeorge sequence.
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12/71. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a 10p14 deletion that includes the DGS2 region in a patient with multiple anomalies.

    We report on a prenatally diagnosed four-month-old boy with DiGeorge-like phenotype and a deletion of chromosome 10pter --> 14. fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments using phage artificial chromosome (PAC) and yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones indicated that the chromosomal breakpoint was located at the proximal boundary of the digeorge syndrome 2 (DGS2) critical region. The patient demonstrated a high forehead, high arched eyebrows, short palpebral fissures, sparse eyelashes, prominent nose with bulbous tip, small mouth, receding chin, round ears with deficient helices, cardiac defects atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD), mild brachytelephalangy, mild syndactyly, hypoplastic left kidney, undescended testes, muscular hypertonia, dorsally flexed big toes, and developmental delay. The phenotype corresponded well with the clinical signs of 10p deletion of this region that were described previously. The facial features appeared different from the typical face with the 22q11 deletion.
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13/71. DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome: FISH studies of chromosomes 22q11 and 10p14, and clinical reports on the proximal 22q11 deletion.

    DiGeorge anomaly/velocardiofacial syndrome (DG/VCFS) occurs with different deletion intervals on chromosomes 22q11, while the DiGeorge anomaly (with other findings) is seen in patients with deletions of 10p14. The clinical outcome with the common 22q11 deletion (90% of cases) is well known, but the outcome with the less frequent deletion types has not been well documented. Using cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis we studied a series of 295 patients with suspected DG/VCFS. We identified 58 subjects with a 22q11 deletion, and none with a 10p deletion. Fifty-two subjects had the common deletion, five had the proximal deletion, and one had an atypical proximal deletion due to a 1;22 translocation. We report clinical data of four subjects with the proximal 22q11 microdeletion, and of one patient with the atypical proximal deletion. The anomalies observed with the proximal 22q11 microdeletion fell within the DG/VCFS spectrum. Two females, 6 and 25 years old, had normal mental development. Normal development has been reported with the common 22q11 deletion, but only in a minority of cases. This study may indicate a better intellectual and/or behavioral outcome with the proximal vs. the common 22q11 deletion, rather than a chance finding.
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14/71. Evans syndrome in a patient with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: a case report.

    One patient with a chromosome 22q11.2 deletion and Evans syndrome is reported in this paper. Microdeletions of 22q11.2 are the main etiology for digeorge syndrome, a disorder characterized by heart defects, immune deficiencies due to aplasia or hypoplasia of the thymus, and hypocalcemia. Evans syndrome refers to a hematological autoimmune disorder with autoimmune hemolytic anemia accompanied by immune thrombocytopenia. A wide range of autoimmune disorders have been described in digeorge syndrome and velocardiofacial syndrome, including one prior report of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia. The patient reported herein strengthens the association between the 22q11.2 deletion spectrum and Evans syndrome.
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15/71. Vasomotor instability in neonates with chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome.

    Approximately 70% of individuals with chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have congenital heart defects. A host of other vascular problems in these patients, such as tortuous carotid arteries, Raynaud's phenomenon, unexplained hypotension, hypertension, and hypothermia, raise the possibility that there may be abnormal autonomic regulation of the vascular system. So far, however, there has been no formal report of autonomic dysfunction in patients with 22q11 deletion. We present two infants with 22q11DS, who had profound hypotension after uncomplicated surgeries for congenital heart disease. The hypotension was not responsive to vasopressor treatment (and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in one infant) and resulted in death, due to multiorgan system failure. Obvious causes, such as poor cardiac contractility, prolonged circulatory arrest, neurological abnormality, sepsis and blood loss were excluded. On autopsy, no abnormalities were found that could explain the hypotension. We hypothesize that these infants died of severe hypotension due to abnormal vascular tone and that this is a variable feature in individuals with 22q11 deletion. The autonomic nervous system, which is responsible for the regulation of vasomotor tone, may be variably affected in 22q11DS. This could have implications for the surgical management of patients with 22q11DS. Further studies on this topic would establish or refute the association between 22q11DS and dysautonomia.
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16/71. Does chromosome 22 have anything to do with sex determination: further studies on a 46,XX,22q11.2 del male.

    Several years ago, we presented a patient with true hermaphroditism and partial duplication of chromosome 22 and no evidence of SRY (Aleck et al. [1999: Am J Med Genet 85:2-4]). Recently a 46,XX male with velocardiofacial syndrome and a deletion of 22q11.2 and no evidence of Y chromosomal loci in blood dna was reported (Phelan et al. [2003: Am J Med Genet 116A:77-79]). We have restudied this patient as he enters puberty. Because chromosomal deletions sometimes involve micro rearrangements of nearby material, we have extensively studied this individual's chromosome 22 looking for evidence of any gene duplication. We studied a number of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci along chromosome 22 in the patient and both parents. Normal Mendelian inheritance of the VNTRs was found. We then used quantitative multiplex PCR of short fluorescent fragments (QMPSF) to delineate the 22q11.2 deletion in this patient (Jacquet et al. [2002: Hum Molec Genet 11:2243-2249]) and found a pattern of deletion typical of the velocardiofacial digeorge syndrome. Finally, the patient's dna has been analyzed using a full coverage human chromosome 22 genomic microarray (array comparative genomic hybridization [CGH]) for evidence of rearrangements outside the classical velocardiofacial DiGeorge associated deletion (Buckley et al. [2002: Hum Molec Genet 11:3221-3229]). The array-CGH profile of this patient confirms the deletion encompassing the typically deleted region associated with the velocardiofacial digeorge syndrome and provides no support for additional gene copy number aberrations on 22q. Thus, there is no evidence of any chromosome 22 trisomic material. In this case, the rare events of sex reversal and 22q11.2 deletion may have occurred together by chance.
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17/71. Molecular studies of a translocated (X;22) DiGeorge patient using somatic cell hybridization.

    In order to better characterize the chromosomic rearrangement of an unbalanced 45XX t(X;22) (q28;q11) DiGeorge patient, a somatic hybrid clone segregating the translocated chromosome was constructed and investigated using X and 22 linked markers. Our study demonstrated that this de novo translocation was from paternal origin. The breakpoint was assigned between DXS296 and IDS loci at Xq28 and between D22S9 and BCRL2 at 22q11. This observation and published data allow to locate a "critical region" for digeorge syndrome between these two last loci on 22q11. Our hybrid clone may be a useful tool for mapping new probes arising in this region.
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18/71. Neoplastic disease and deletion 22q11.2: a multicentric study and report of two cases.

    Deletion 22q11.2 is a chromosomal abnormality detected in young patients with clinical manifestations of the DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome. Conotruncal heart defects are also associated with del22q11.2. An association of these cardiac malformations with neoplasias has been observed. Our series includes two cases of malignancies, a hepatoblastoma and a renal-cell carcinoma, arising in children with complex cardiac malformations. The aim of the study was to determine if the deletion at 22q11.2 was present and could be responsible for both pathological processes. Del22q11.2 was identified in both cases. comparative genomic hybridization revealed terminal gains on chromosomes 1q and Xq and terminal loss on 1p in the hepatoblastoma, and gains in 1p, 12q, 16p, 20q, 22q, and whole chromosome 19 and loss of Xq in the renal-cell carcinoma. Our results confirm a common genetic basis for cardiac malformations, and del22q11.2 presents a risk factor for the development of pediatric tumours.
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19/71. digeorge syndrome with truncus arteriosus: report of one case.

    digeorge syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by a spectrum of thymic and parathyroid gland abnormalities, conotruncal cardiac defects, and typical facial dysmorphism. We report a male infant with partial digeorge syndrome characterized by truncus arteriosus, typical facial dysmorphism, hypocalcemia, lymphocytopenia with T-cell deficiency, and chromosome 22q11.2 deletion. Transient lymphocytopenia was noted for 5 days after birth and hypocalcemia was corrected with calcium gluconate administration. Surgical correction of the truncus arteriosus was performed at the age of 3 months. Unfortunately, the patient subsequently had an unwitnessed cardiac arrest, and despite resuscitation, died at the age of 4 months.
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20/71. 22q11.2 duplication syndrome: two new familial cases with some overlapping features with DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndromes.

    Twenty-one patients, including our two cases, with variable clinical phenotype, ranging from mild learning disability to severe congenital malformations or overlapping features with DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndromes (DG/VCFS), have been shown to have a chromosome duplication 22q11 of the region that is deleted in patients with DG/VCFS. The reported cases have been identified primarily by interphase FISH and could have escaped identification and been missed by routine cytogenetic analysis. Here we report on two inherited cases, referred to us, to rule out 22q11 microdeletion diagnosis of VCFS. The first patient was a 2-month-old girl, who presented with cleft palate, minor dysmorphic features including short palpebral fissures, widely spaced eyes, long fingers, and hearing loss. Her affected mother had mild mental retardation and learning disabilities. The second patient was a 7(1/2)-year-old boy with velopharyngeal insufficiency and mild developmental delay. He had a left preauricular tag, bifida uvula, bilateral fifth finger clinodactyly, and bilateral cryptorchidism. His facial features appeared mildly dysmorphic with hypertelorism, large nose, and micro/retrognathia. The affected father had mild mental retardation and had similar facial features. FISH analysis of interphase cells showed three TUPLE1-probe signals with two chromosome-specific identification probes in each cell. FISH analysis did not show the duplication on the initial testing of metaphase chromosomes. On review, band q11.2 was brighter on one chromosome 22 in some metaphase spreads. The paucity of reported cases of 22q11.2 microduplication likely reflects a combination of phenotypic diversity and the difficulty of diagnosis by FISH analysis on metaphase spreads. These findings illustrate the importance of scanning interphase nuclei when performing FISH analysis for any of the genomic disorders.
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