Cases reported "DiGeorge Syndrome"

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1/30. Abdominal lymphatic dysplasia and 22q11 microdeletion.

    We report the case of a child with 22q11 microdeletion who presented with abdominal lymphatic dysplasia resulting in exsudative enteropathy. This primitive and localized lymphatic malformation is consistent with the vascular theory in the velocardiofacial syndrome.
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ranking = 1
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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2/30. Patient with a 22q11.2 deletion with no overlap of the minimal digeorge syndrome critical region (MDGCR).

    The apparent lack of genotype/phenotype correlation in patients with the DiGeorge anomaly and velocardiofacial syndrome (DGA/VCFS; the "22q11 deletion syndrome") indicates a complex genetic condition. Most cases, whatever the phenotype, have a 1.5-3 Mb chromosomal deletion that includes the minimal DiGeorge critical region (MDGCR). Another potential critical region on 22q11 has been suggested based on two patients with distal deletions outside the MDGCR. We report on a patient with a VCFS phenotype who has a deletion, mapped by short tandem repeat polymorphic loci and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, distal to and not overlapping the MDGCR. This patient is deleted for several genes, including the T-box 1 gene (TBX1; a transcription regulator expressed early in embryogenesis) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; involved in neurotransmitter metabolism). We discuss the role these two genes may play in the clinical phenotype of the patient.
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ranking = 1
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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3/30. CATCH 22 syndrome: report of 7 infants with follow-up data and review of the recent advancements in the genetic knowledge of the locus 22q11.

    CATCH 22 is a medical acronym for Cardiac defects, Abnormal facies, Thymic hypoplasia, cleft palate, and hypocalcemia, and a variable deletion on chromosome 22. The deletion within the chromosome region of 22q11 may occur in patients with three well-described dysmorphologic cardiological syndromes: digeorge syndrome (DGS), velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), and conotruncal anomaly face syndrome (CTAFS). We report in detail seven infants with a deletion of the locus 22q11 showing overlapping clinical features of DGS and CTAFS with complex congenital heart defects (double outlet right ventricle, atresia or stenosis of the pulmonary valve, atrial and ventricular septal defects, patent ductus arteriosus, tetralogy of fallot, major aortopulmonary collateral arteries, arcus aortae dexter, and persistence of the left superior vena cava). A homograft was implanted between the right ventricle and the main stem of the pulmonary artery in 2 patients, while a balloon valvuloplastic of the pulmonary valve was performed in one patient only. Pulmonary hemorrhage, acute hypoxia, and aspergillus pneumonia were the complications. death occurred in three out of seven patients. Recent advancements in the genetic knowledge of the locus 22q11 are described. Since the locus 22q11 is highly heterogeneous, the CATCH 22 acronym should be used and temporarily the old eponyms should be abandoned waiting for the identification of the different genes.
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ranking = 1
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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4/30. An HDR (hypoparathyroidism, deafness, renal dysplasia) syndrome locus maps distal to the digeorge syndrome region on 10p13/14.

    Partial monosomy 10p is a rare chromosomal condition and a significant proportion of patients show features of digeorge syndrome (DGS) and velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). A critical haploinsufficiency region for DGS/VCFS was defined on 10p (DGCR2). We performed molecular deletion analysis of two further patients with partial monosomy 10p, who showed hypoparathyroidism, deafness, and renal dysplasia or renal insufficiency, but no cardiac defect, cleft palate, or reduced T cell levels. Previously, the combination of hypoparathyroidism, deafness, and renal dysplasia has been proposed to represent a specific syndrome (MIM 146255) under the acronym HDR. In addition to the two patients in this report, at least four published cases with partial monosomy 10p show the triad of HDR and 14 other patients present with at least two of the three features. We therefore conclude that HDR syndrome can be associated with partial monosomy 10p. Based on molecular deletion analysis and the clinical data, we suggest that the DGS/VCFS phenotype associated with 10p deletion can be considered as a contiguous gene syndrome owing to haploinsufficiency of two different regions. Hemizygosity of the proximal region, designated DGCR2, can cause cardiac defect and T cell deficiency. Hemizygosity of the distal region, designated HDR1, can cause hypoparathyroidism and in addition sensorineuronal deafness and renal dysplasia/insufficiency or a subset of this triad.
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ranking = 1
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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5/30. Dual-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization assay for detecting deletions associated with VCFS/digeorge syndrome I and digeorge syndrome II loci.

    Over 90% of patients with digeorge syndrome (DGS) or velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) have a microdeletion at 22q11.2. Given that these deletions are difficult to visualize at the light microscopic level, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been instrumental in the diagnosis of this disorder. Deletions on the short arm of chromosome 10 are also associated with a DGS-like phenotype. Since deletions at 22q11.2 and at 10p13p14 result in similar findings, we have developed a dual-probe FISH assay for screening samples referred for DGS or VCFS in the clinical laboratory. This assay includes two test probes for the loci, DGSI at 22q11.2 and DGSII at 10p13p14, and centromeric probes for chromosomes 10 and 22. Of 412 patients tested, 54 were found to be deleted for the DGSI locus on chromosome 22 (13%), and a single patient was found deleted for the DGSII locus on chromosome 10 (0. 24%). The patient with the 10p deletion had facial features consistent with VCFS, plus sensorineural hearing loss, and renal anomalies. cytogenetic analysis showed a large deletion of 10p [46, XX,del(10)(p12.2p14)] and FISH using a 10p telomere region-specific probe confirmed the interstitial nature of the deletion. Analysis for the DGSI and the DGSII loci suggests that the deletion of the DGSII locus on chromosome 10 may be 50 times less frequent than the deletion of DGSI on chromosome 22. The incidence of deletions at 22q11.2 has been estimated to be 1 in 4000 newborns; therefore, the deletion at 10p13p14 may be estimated to occur in 1 in 200,000 live births.
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ranking = 1
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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6/30. Molecular characterization of tetralogy of fallot within Digeorge critical region of the chromosome 22.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the levels of heterozygosity and microdeletion of specific loci within the DiGeorge critical region (del22q11) are associated with different phenotypes of tetralogy of fallot (TF). Examinations were conducted on 84 sporadic TF patients and their unaffected parents for del22q11, using the following 9 simple tandem repeat polymorphic microsatellite markers: D22S420, D22S427, D22S941, D22S944, D22S264, D22S311, D22S425, D22S303, D22S257. The microdeletions were confirmed using quantitative PCR with markers TUPLE1, exon 2 of the UFD1L gene, and D22S264; the boundaries of these microdeletions were estimated using genotypic analyses of the unaffected family members. The del22q11 was identified in 14 patients (16.6%). The boundary of the shortest region of deletion overlap (SRO) in these 14 TF patients was identified, proximally using D22S427 and distally using the TUPLE 1 gene. The deletion of exon 2 of the UFD1L gene and TUPLE1 gene was identified in 13 patients (13/14 cases; 93%). The SRO in TF patients with del22q11 was at or close to the ADU breakpoint and centromeric to the UFD1L gene. The level of heterozygosity for the marker D22S944 in TF patients without del22q11 (n = 70) was found to be significantly lower than expected. overall, this study demonstrated the significantly low level of heterozygosity within DiGeorge critical region in TF patients with or without del22q11. Our results suggest that the genetic factors leading to DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome might also be partly responsible for TF phenotypes.
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ranking = 1
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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7/30. digeorge syndrome associated with left lung aplasia.

    We report a patient with clinical and cytogenetic findings consistent with DiGeorge-velocardiofacial syndrome and aplasia of the left lung. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of DiGeorge-velocardiofacial syndrome associated with unilateral lung aplasia. gadolinium enhanced three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated associated right-sided aortic arch and left pulmonary artery agenesis.
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ranking = 2
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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8/30. Juvenile idiopathic polyarticular arthritis and iga deficiency in the 22q11 deletion syndrome.

    Five patients with the 22q11 deletion syndrome (velocardiofacial syndrome) developed chronic inflammatory polyarticular arthritis. These new cases add to 8 previously reported and confirm the association. The arthritis in all cases was moderate to severe, but at least partially responsive to methotrexate and/or corticosteroids, and was clinically indistinguishable from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Analysis of the total 13 patients indicates that 2 are rheumatoid factor positive, 6 are antinuclear antibody positive, 5 have subtle T cell deficiencies, and 6 have hypergammaglobulinemia. Of particular interest is the occurrence of iga deficiency in 4 patients, including 2 from our own series. Although iga deficiency is seen in both JIA (2-4%) and 22q11 deletion syndrome (2-4%), the prevalence of low IgA in this series (31%) is much greater than expected. This phenomenon and the true association of inflammatory arthritis and a chromosome deletion disorder provides further evidence of important genetic factors in the pathogenesis of JIA.
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ranking = 1
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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9/30. Neurological presentation of three patients with 22q11 deletion (CATCH 22 syndrome).

    Chromosome 22q11 deletion (CATCH 22 syndrome or velocardiofacial syndrome) is one of the most frequent chromosomal syndromes. Neurological features other than cognitive disorders are probably the least-described part of the expanding phenotype of the 22q11 deletion. We report the neurological features of three unrelated children with a de novo deletion: one patient with an autistic disorder, a second patient with hypocalcaemic neonatal seizures and unusual persistent epileptic focus at electroencephalographic follow-up, and a third patient with atypical absence epilepsy. These observations enlarge the clinical and neurological spectrum of the 22q11 deletion. awareness of such cases is necessary, and a diagnosis of the 22q11 deletion should be suspected in children with common neurological features associated with severe or mild dysmorphism. diagnosis of the 22q11 deletion should be confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis associated with standard chromosomal analysis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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10/30. DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome: FISH studies of chromosomes 22q11 and 10p14, and clinical reports on the proximal 22q11 deletion.

    DiGeorge anomaly/velocardiofacial syndrome (DG/VCFS) occurs with different deletion intervals on chromosomes 22q11, while the DiGeorge anomaly (with other findings) is seen in patients with deletions of 10p14. The clinical outcome with the common 22q11 deletion (90% of cases) is well known, but the outcome with the less frequent deletion types has not been well documented. Using cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis we studied a series of 295 patients with suspected DG/VCFS. We identified 58 subjects with a 22q11 deletion, and none with a 10p deletion. Fifty-two subjects had the common deletion, five had the proximal deletion, and one had an atypical proximal deletion due to a 1;22 translocation. We report clinical data of four subjects with the proximal 22q11 microdeletion, and of one patient with the atypical proximal deletion. The anomalies observed with the proximal 22q11 microdeletion fell within the DG/VCFS spectrum. Two females, 6 and 25 years old, had normal mental development. Normal development has been reported with the common 22q11 deletion, but only in a minority of cases. This study may indicate a better intellectual and/or behavioral outcome with the proximal vs. the common 22q11 deletion, rather than a chance finding.
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ranking = 5
keywords = velocardiofacial syndrome, velocardiofacial
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