Cases reported "Diabetes Complications"

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1/48. pheochromocytoma and sub-clinical Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy: diagnosis, medical pre-treatment and cure by laparoscopic unilateral adrenalectomy.

    The coexistence of pheochromocytoma and primary adrenal Cushing's syndrome of the same adrenal gland has rarely been reported. We describe here the case of a female patient presenting with mild Cushing's stigmata, hypertension and diabetes mellitus in whom we diagnosed a pheochromocytoma of the left adrenal gland with coexisting non-ACTH-dependent cortisol hypersecretion. While hormonal work-up was still in progress, the patient became pregnant and wanted to carry her pregnancy to full-term. A laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the 17th week of gestation was decided upon and the patient accordingly prepared for surgery by pre-treatment with phenoxybenzamine. Successful surgery--the first ever reported laparoscopic resection of a pheochromocytoma in pregnancy--without perioperative complications was performed under general anesthesia, with the patient receiving peri- and post-operative hydrocortisone substitution. Pathohistological examination revealed a pheochromocytoma with positive immunostaining for interleukin-6 (IL-6) and negative immunostaining for ACTH, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and cytochrome P450, and with no signs of malignancy. A paracrine stimulation of the ipsilateral adrenal cortex by IL-6 produced by the pheochromocytoma, leading to cortical hyperplasia and subclinical Cushing's syndrome, is suggested by the positive immunostaining for IL-6 and the MRI findings. Post-operatively, secondary adrenal insufficiency ensued, necessitating continuing hydrocortisone replacement over 12 months. hypertension resolved after surgery, and diabetes after the uncomplicated vaginal delivery at term.
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2/48. Acute complications in the operative treatment of isolated ankle fractures in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Using a computer database, we conducted a retrospective review of all ankle fractures treated at our institution from March 1985 to October 1996. Twenty-one patients with diabetes mellitus and isolated ankle fractures that were treated operatively met all inclusion criteria. Seven had insulin-dependent diabetes, and 14 had non-insulin-dependent diabetes. A randomly selected control group of 46 patients without diabetes who also underwent operative treatment of ankle fractures during this same time period were matched for age, sex, and fracture severity. The complication rate was 43% with 13 complications in nine patients with diabetes. There were seven (15.5%) complications in the control group. Complications in the diabetic group included seven infections (five deep, two superficial) and three losses of fixation. The complications were more severe in our diabetic population, requiring seven additional procedures including two below-knee amputations; a third patient refused an amputation. No additional procedures were required in our control group. All complications in our control group resolved with treatment. The relative risk for postoperative complications in patients with diabetes who sustained ankle fractures that were treated operatively was 2.76 times greater than the control group's (95% confidence interval, 1.57-3.97).
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3/48. Thoracic epidural anesthesia for modified radical mastectomy in a patient with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis: a case report.

    A case of advanced cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) with multiple bullae and extensive pulmonary fibrosis, scheduled for modified radical mastectomy for carcinoma of breast, is presented. This patient had ischemic heart disease, corticosteroid-induced hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and a difficult airway. Thoracic epidural segmental anesthesia was successfully given to this patient. Preoperative problems, perioperative management, and alternative anesthetic techniques are discussed.
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4/48. Surgical treatment for severe diabetic macular edema with massive hard exudates.

    PURPOSE: Massive diabetic macular exudates respond poorly to conventional laser treatment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the surgical results of eyes with massive hard exudates secondary to diabetic macular edema treated with combined pars plana vitrectomy, posterior hyaloid removal, focal endolaser treatment, and panretinal photocoagulation. methods: The author retrospectively analyzed the surgical outcome of 13 consecutive eyes (11 patients) with massive diabetic macular exudates. All patients had had at least one session of focal and/or grid laser treatment without any effect. Pars plana vitrectomy, posterior hyaloid removal, focal macular endolaser treatment, and intraoperative panretinal photocoagulation were performed. Postoperative visual acuity, evolution of macular edema, and hard exudates were recorded. RESULTS: All 13 eyes showed significant decreases in macular edema and hard exudates, a process that became clinically obvious 3 months after the operation. Eleven eyes had improved vision of at least two lines during an average follow-up period of 14.8 months. Intraoperative and postoperative complications included angle closure glaucoma (one eye), persistent vitreous hemorrhage (two eyes), choroidal detachment (one eye), intravitreal fibrin formation (one eye), epiretinal membrane formation (one eye), and neovascular glaucoma (one eye). CONCLUSION: Combined surgery may offer an opportunity for improvement of vision and reduction of massive macular exudates in patients with severe diabetic macular edema.
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5/48. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis diagnosis by aspiration cytology.

    Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rapidly progressing, often fatal fungal infection that occurs commonly in diabetics and immunocompromised individuals. We present 2 cases of rhinocerebral mucormycosis with a paranasal mass. One patient had an intracranial extension. Nasal scrapings and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the paranasal masses showed fungal hyphae morphologically resembling Mucor. Surgical material showed features of mucormycosis. FNAC and scrape smears can give a conclusive diagnosis of mucormycosis, and the patient can be treated with appropriate antifungal therapy and surgical debridement. Preoperative cytology is an effective technique to establish a diagnosis of mucormycosis and obviates the need for a preoperative biopsy.
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6/48. Mycotic aneurysm of the aortic arch.

    A 61-year-old diabetic woman presented with a mycotic aneurysm of the aortic arch, also involving the left subclavian and vertebral arteries, caused by staphylococcus aureus. Two months before, she had suffered from staphylococcal septic arthritis in her left knee. The patient was treated with antibiotics and an emergency operation was performed involving aneurysm excision and in situ synthetic graft replacement. She died on the fourth postoperative day from hemorrhagic shock.
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7/48. insulinoma occurring in association with fatty replacement of unknown etiology in the pancreas: report of a case.

    A 66-year-old woman with a 10-year-history of diabetes mellitus was admitted to our hospital for investigation of several recent attacks of hypoglycemia. Her fasting blood glucose level was very low, at 30-40 mg/dl, and abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a tumor in the pancreatic tail with fatty changes. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed absence of the main pancreatic duct from the body to tail of the pancreas. Abdominal angiography showed a hypervascular tumor stain in the pancreas, and percutaneous transhepatic portal vein sampling demonstrated a step-up of immunoreactive insulin levels in the splenic vein. Based on these clinical findings, we made a preoperative diagnosis of an insulinoma accompanied by fatty changes in the pancreatic body and tail. During laparotomy for the insulinoma, fat tissue was identified in the anatomic location of the pancreatic body and tail, and resected. Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a number of Langerhans islets in the adipose tissue, and an islet cell tumor with fatty replacement of the pancreatic tissue around the tumor. The insulinoma was found not to have caused obstruction of the main pancreatic duct. We present herein a rare case of an insulinoma that developed in the pancreas, and was associated with fatty replacement of unknown etiology.
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8/48. Three elderly patients with lower esophageal cancer successfully treated by transhiatal esophagectomy assisted by mediastinoscopy.

    mediastinoscopy-assisted transhiatal esophagectomy recently has been applied in patients with intrathoracic esophageal cancer. Elderly patients with esophageal cancer experience several types of complications and often cannot undergo standard transthoracic esophagectomy. In this study, three elderly patients with preoperative complications underwent mediastinoscopy-assisted transhiatal esophagectomy for esophageal cancer located in the lower part of the esophagus. Patient 1 was an 80-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Patient 2 was a 78-year-old man with bronchial asthma. Patient 3 was an 81-year-old-man with diabetes mellitus and an atherosclerotic obstruction of the lower extremities. In these patients, mediastinoscopy-assisted transhiatal esophagectomy concomitant with reconstruction by means of a gastric tube was performed. Lymph node dissections of the middle and lower mediastinum and of the abdomen, including the regions surrounding the left gastric and celiac arteries, were performed. postoperative complications developed only in patient 1; minor leakage of the esophagogastrostomy and high bilirubinemia were observed. Metastasis was detected in the lymph nodes surrounding the celiac artery in patient 1 and surrounding the left gastric artery in patients 2 and 3. Patient 2 died of pneumonia 18 months later, but the other patients have been well, without recurrence of the cancer after surgery. In conclusion, mediastinoscopy-assisted transhiatal esophagectomy has some benefits for elderly esophageal cancer patients who experience preoperative complications.
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9/48. Improvement of weight loss and metabolic effects of vertical banded gastroplasty by an added duodenal switch procedure.

    BACKGROUND: Some patients who underwent vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) need revisional operations because of poor weight loss and remaining comorbidities. The duodenal switch (DS) procedure with partial gastrectomy is known as an effective method for treatment of severe obesity and related dyslipoproteinemias and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). Other investigations have shown that DS without gastric resection similarly corrects hypercholesterolemia and DM2 in the "less than" morbidly obese patients. methods: Based on this knowledge, we performed a DS simultaneously with hernioplasty and panniculectomy in a 63-year-old woman with a fair EWL (36.4%), with remaining hypercholesterolemia and DM2 4 years after VBG. The pouch stoma diameter was 13 mm, and there was no pouch dilation nor staple-line disruption. The previously partitioned stomach was left in place. H2-blockers and polyvitamins were prescribed after operation. RESULTS: 1 year after DS there were no postoperative complications and undesirable effects except slight anemia. DS allowed improvement in weight loss, improved carbohydrate handling without need for insulin or other hypoglycemic agents, and corrected severe hypercholesterolemia. CONCLUSION: DS per se in the case presented had a decisive effect on DM2 and hypercholesterolemia. DS should be kept in mind as a second-step malabsorptive procedure after a failed purely restrictive operation.
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10/48. blindness after laryngectomy and bilateral neck dissection in a diabetic patient: case report.

    CONTEXT: neck dissection that accompanies resection of the primary lesion in malignant tumors of the upper aerodigestive tracts may cause complications inherent to the procedure or to prolongation of surgical time, increasing the risks for the patient. Among the complications that might occur is blindness, a rare complication with only 10 cases reported in the literature thus far. OBJECTIVE: To present the case of a diabetic patient submitted to total laryngectomy and modified and selective neck dissection that resulted in blindness. CASE REPORT: The authors report on a patient submitted to total laryngectomy and selective neck dissection on the left side, and modified radical neck dissection on the right, who developed blindness. This was probably due to intraoperative hypotension plus the contribution of decompensated diabetes mellitus and thrombosis of the internal jugular vein on the right side. The possible causes, risk factors and care to be taken to prevent this rare but highly debilitating complication are discussed.
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