Cases reported "Diabetes Complications"

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1/40. adult Leigh syndrome with mitochondrial dna mutation at 8993.

    adult onset Leigh syndrome with a nucleotide (nt) 8993 mutation in mitochondrial (mt) dna is reported. A 43-year-old woman with a 6-year-history of insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus developed muscular weakness, intractable nausea and vomiting, and anemia. These were followed vertigo, blindness, and deafness with nystagmus. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed abnormal high intensities in the bilateral medial regions of the thalamus and periaqueductal gray matters. autopsy disclosed well-demarcated necrotizing lesions with prominent capillaries in the areas detected by MRI, which were sufficiently diagnostic for Leigh syndrome. MtDNA analysis performed on DNAs extracted from formalin-fixed tissues including liver, heart, brain, muscle, kidney and pancreas showed a T-->G mutation at nt 8993. This is the first case of adult Leigh syndrome demonstrating on mtDNA mutations.
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ranking = 1
keywords = necrotizing
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2/40. Clinical and radiological findings in patients with gas forming renal abscess treated conservatively.

    PURPOSE: Emphysematous pyelonephritis in diabetics is considered a potentially lethal infection. mortality rates of patients treated conservatively approaches 80% in some series. These patients often present with signs of sepsis or septic shock. In contrast, gas forming renal abscess is rare, with patients presenting entirely differently from those with emphysematous pyelonephritis. To our knowledge this process has been previously described only in isolated case reports. We describe a series of 5 patients with this distinct process. MATERIALS AND methods: We reviewed the clinical and radiological features of 5 patients with gas forming renal abscesses. RESULTS: Each patient presented with diabetes mellitus with initial blood glucose ranging from 313 to 552 mg./dl., fever (average 101F), flank or abdominal pain and pyuria. No patient had evidence of septic shock at hospitalization. escherichia coli was the documented organism in each case. Mild renal insufficiency was noted in most patients based on serum creatinine. Radiological evaluation revealed gas filled pockets within the renal parenchyma, which were most effectively shown by computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen. There was no radiological evidence of pus. Percutaneous drainage of an abscess in 1 case did not produce any purulent material or alter the clinical course. Each patient responded to correction of the underlying metabolic abnormalities with intravenous antibiotics (average 23 days) followed by prolonged oral antibiotic therapy (average 9 weeks). In contrast to the management of emphysematous pyelonephritis, surgical or percutaneous drainage was not necessary. Serial CT revealed complete resolution of gas in the parenchyma within 6 months in patients with long-term followup. Of note, gas was persistent on CT months after infection had clinically resolved. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a unique entity within the spectrum of pyelonephritis. The clinical appearance of gas forming abscesses within the renal parenchyma without liquefaction in diabetic patients was remarkably benign compared to the radiographic appearance of the disease process. Conservative management with intravenous and oral antibiotics was successful in each patient, avoiding the need for invasive intervention.
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ranking = 589.28866283548
keywords = pyelonephritis
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3/40. A fatal case of craniofacial necrotizing fasciitis.

    A case of fatal craniofacial necrotizing fasciitis is described in a 72-year-old diabetic woman and management is discussed. Progressive infection of the eyelids occurred with involvement of the right side of the face. Computed tomography revealed soft tissue swelling. Antibiotic treatment was started and debridement performed; histopathology showed acute inflammation and thrombosis of the epidermis and dermis. Despite treatment, scepticemia occurred, resulting in death less than 48 h after presentation. At this time extensive necrosis had developed in the superficial fascia with undermining and gangrene of surrounding tissues. streptococcus and staphylococcus were the pathogens involved. Poor prognosis in similar patients has been associated with extensive infection, involvement of the lower face and neck, delayed treatment, advanced age, diabetes and vascular disease.
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ranking = 5
keywords = necrotizing
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4/40. Necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock-like syndrome caused by group B streptococcus.

    A recent increase in reports of necrotizing fasciitis resulting from group B streptococcus has alerted physicians to a possible concomitant increase of toxic shock-like syndrome. We report the second case of group B streptococcus causing necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock-like syndrome. A black woman, aged 52 years, with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus had necrotizing fasciitis type II of the left groin. hypotension, elevated bilirubin and liver enzymes, and adult respiratory distress syndrome rapidly developed. Because group B streptococcus was isolated from a normally sterile site, the patient's condition met the criteria for toxic shock-like syndrome. Extensive surgical debridement, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and intravenous antibiotic therapy (including clindamycin) were required for complete recovery. The antitoxin effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and clindamycin should be further investigated for the treatment of such patients.
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ranking = 3
keywords = necrotizing
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5/40. Lethal invasive mucormycosis: case report and recommendations for treatment.

    A case of lethal invasive mucormycosis (IM), a rare fungal infection which predominantly affects immunocompromised patients, is reported in a 73-year-old female patient who presented with a cervical abscess. The patient had asthma treated with steroids and had previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. Despite surgical treatment and parenteral antibiotic therapy, there was fatal progression of the condition. The pathogenesis, histological appearances and treatment of mucormycosis are discussed, particularly the importance of urgent histological examination of debrided tissue to distinguish this condition from necrotizing fasciitis (NF) earlier than microbiological culture alone would allow, thus permitting the early introduction of appropriate antifungal therapy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = necrotizing
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6/40. Emphysematous pyelonephritis in a renal allograft: successful treatment with percutaneous drainage and nephrostomy.

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis in renal transplant allograft occurs rarely. This is a case report on a 55-year-old man who had renal transplantation in 1983 and developed post-transplant diabetes mellitus in 1984. This patient suffered from fever and right low abdominal pain and was subsequently diagnosed as emphysematous pyelonephritis by computerized tomography. He was successfully treated with percutaneous drainage, percutaneous nephrostomy and parenteral antibiotics. Although the management of emphysematous pyelonephritis has been a subject of controversy, we recommend consideration of renal preservation in patients with few risk factors, especially in those patients presenting with chronic renal insufficiency, solitary kidney and transplant allograft.
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ranking = 1031.2551599621
keywords = pyelonephritis
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7/40. Acute fulminant hepatic infection causing fatal "emphysematous hepatitis": case report.

    We describe a case of fatal fulminant hepatic infection with gas replacement of the hepatic parenchyma and no evidence of a liquified abscess in a diabetic patient: a case of "emphysematous hepatitis," the hepatic equivalent of emphysematous pyelonephritis. Computed tomography and clinical findings are described.
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ranking = 147.32216570887
keywords = pyelonephritis
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8/40. Emphysematous pyelonephritis.

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare complication of urinary tract infection and generally occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus or urinary tract obstruction. We recently treated an 81-year-old diabetic woman with klebsiella pneumoniae urinary tract infection and septicemia whose abdominal roentgenogram demonstrated a striking left pneumonephrogram as well as intraureteral and perirenal gas. The patient died despite intensive therapeutic efforts. Unfortunately, the prognosis for this severe necrotizing infection process remains unfavorable.
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ranking = 737.61082854435
keywords = pyelonephritis, necrotizing
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9/40. Emphysematous pyelonephritis and renal amoebiasis in a patient with diabetes mellitus.

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is an uncommon and life-threatening infection of the kidney that is characterized by gas formation within or around the kidney and is associated with diabetes mellitus and urinary tract infection. Amoebiasis is a protozoal infection caused by entamoeba histolytica. In its invasive forms, the disease is characterized by visceral abscess formations. We present a case of concomitant emphysematous pyelonephritis and renal amoebiasis in a 42-year-old female with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. The patient did not respond well to initial supportive treatment and antibiotherapy. Therefore, nephrectomy was performed. She did extremely well after the operation and was discharged with antidiabetics and antibiotics.
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ranking = 883.93299425322
keywords = pyelonephritis
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10/40. Deep fascial space infection of the neck: a continuing challenge.

    We present our clinical experience with two complex cases of deep fascial space infections of the neck. The first was a case of cervical necrotizing fasciitis involving the submental space. The second was an infection beginning at the soft palate and extending to the anterior mediastinum. Both infections emanated from an oral source in patients with diabetes mellitus, and both patients required multiple surgical debridements and endotracheal intubation for airway protection. Despite the declining incidence of deep space neck infections, our cases illustrate the challenging diagnostic and treatment dilemmas for the clinician managing patients with diabetes.
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ranking = 1
keywords = necrotizing
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