Cases reported "Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1"

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1/6. A case of chronic hepatitis c developing insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus associated with various autoantibodies during interferon therapy.

    We report a case of chronic hepatitis c presenting insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) associated with various autoantibodies including possible anti-insulin receptor antibody (AIRA) during interferon (IFN) therapy. A 57-year-old man having chronic hepatitis c virus (HCV) infection with chronic thyroiditis received IFN therapy. The thyroid function was well-controlled by administration of thyroid hormone, although thyroid autoantibodies were positive. At 15 weeks after starting IFN (reaching 530 million units of total dose), marked thirst happened, with increased fasting plasma glucose level (488 mg/dl) and decreased daily urinary C peptide immunoreactivity level (less than 4.2 microg/day). IDDM occurred with anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-dna antibody and possible AIRA, and thyroid autoantibodies titers increased, but without pancreatic islet cell antibody and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody. Administration of IFN was stopped and insulin treatment was started, but plasma glucose level was not controlled well. AIRA became negative 2 months later, however, insulin antibody (IA) was positive when tested after 18 months. serum HCV rna has been negative, and a normal level of serum transaminase has been observed since IFN therapy. It is likely that IFN therapy induced the immunological disturbance and resulted in occurrence of various autoantibodies and IDDM in the patient.
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2/6. Type 1 diabetes associated with asymptomatic acromegaly successfully treated with surgery after pregnancy: a case report.

    We report a rare case of type 1 diabetes in a woman associated with acromegaly who was treated with surgery after pregnancy. An 18-year-old woman came to our hospital in April, 1998, complaining of thirst, polydipsia, polyuria, appetite loss, body weight loss of 8 kg in a month, and amenorrhea beginning 2 months earlier. Based on laboratory data, she was diagnosed as having type 1 diabetes mellitus. Although we suspected her of having acromegaly because of high growth hormone (GH) levels (6.9 or 8.5 ng/ml), blood levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were within normal range and the circadian rhythm of her blood GH levels was normally maintained. Her blood GH level was elevated to 12.6 ng/ml 15 minutes after a TRH administration. Blood GH levels were suppressed from 49 ng/ml to 1.5 ng/ml 4 hours after an oral administration of 2.5 mg of bromocriptine. A magnetic resonance images (MRIs) showed pituitary swelling, but no nodules were found in the pituitary. Therefore, we diagnosed her as having acromegaly and observed her without surgery, while prescribing diet therapy and intensive insulin therapy for diabetes. We started a treatment of oral administration of 7.5 mg of bromocriptine per day for the acromegaly from April 28, 2000, because her elevated GH was suspected of causing her diabetes to be poorly controlled. During a pregnancy from October, 2000 to September, 2001, diabetic control was improved with increased administration of insulin under a constant dose of bromocriptine. She delivered a normal full-term infant. After the bromocriptine therapy was stopped as she hoped to breastfeed, blood levels of GH and IGF-1 became elevated and her diabetic control deteriorated. As her pituitary tumor observed in pituitary MRIs became larger during the course, a transsphenoidal surgery was performed on March 8, 2002. After the surgery, blood levels of GH and IGF-1 lowered and diabetic control improved again. We concluded as follows: to rule out acromegaly in patients with poorly controlled diabetes, 1) measurements of serum GH and IGF-1 should be performed, and 2) pituitary MRIs should be performed if blood levels of GH or IGF-1 are high.
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3/6. A Chinese patient presenting with clinical signs of fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    A 31-year-old Chinese woman suffering from excessive thirst and appetite loss consulted our hospital. Laboratory examination revealed a high blood glucose level and evidence of diabetic ketoacidosis, however, the serum HbA1c was normal. The 24-hour urinary excretion of c-reactive protein and the glucagon stimulation test indicated the loss of endogenous insulin secretion. The patient satisfied the criteria for the diagnosis of fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, she tested positive for serum anti-IA2 antibody even though the titer was low. We considered it worthwhile reporting this case, because very few cases of fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus among Chinese people have been published.
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4/6. Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma in a patient with type 1 diabetes-related diabetic nephropathy: case report.

    Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma (NHC) is characterized by severe hyperglycemia; absence of, or only slight ketosis; nonketotic acidosis; severe dehydration; depressed sensorium or frank coma; and various neurologic signs. This condition is uncommon in type 1 diabetes. Because of little or no osmotic diuresis in patients with diabetic nephropathy, increases in plasma osmolality and therefore the likelihood of neurologic symptoms are limited. A 20-year-old male patient with type 1 diabetes with chronic kidney disease on conservative treatment (glomerular filtration rate [GFR], 18 mL/dk) presented with acute nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome. The patient was admitted presenting with thirst, fatigue, and drowsiness. Blood biochemistry levels were urea 87 mg/dL, creatinine 5.09 mg/dL, glucose 830 mg/dL, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 8%, C peptide <0.3 ng/mL, sodium 131 mmol/L, chloride 93 mmol/L, potassium 5.2 mmol/L, and calculated serum osmolality 385 mOsm/kg. The presumptive diagnosis on admission was nonketotic hyperosmolar syndrome precipitated by urinary infection. This is the first case report of hyperosmolar coma in a patient with type 1 diabetes with chronic kidney disease.
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5/6. Type I (insulin dependent) diabetes: a disease of slow clinical onset?

    Type I (insulin dependent) diabetes is usually believed to present acutely and it is assumed that metabolic decompensation is sudden. In a prospective family study, however, 10 of 13 subjects developing the disease showed progressive or intermittent development of hyperglycaemia over many months and the others had non-specific symptoms over a long period. All were first degree relatives of a child with type I diabetes; 10 were siblings (aged 5-24) and three were parents (aged 45-58). All possessed HLA-DR4 or DR3, or both, and all but two had been positive for islet cell antibodies for six to 86 months before diagnosis. Ten had non-specific symptoms for two to 14 months before the onset of thirst and polyuria; one remained asymptomatic even when insulin became necessary. Six subjects had an oral glucose tolerance test before clinical onset, of whom five were diabetic by world health Organisation criteria four, four, six, seven, and 21 months before insulin was needed. Nine showed random blood glucose concentrations above the 97.5th centile (6.3 mmol/l) six to 34 months (median 12) before diagnosis. Two others had a glucose tolerance test result compatible with diabetes but had not reached the stage of needing insulin. Hyperglycaemia is often of insidious onset in type I diabetes, even in children and young adults. diagnosis will inevitably be late if considered only when acute symptoms of thirst and polyuria develop.
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6/6. Hypernatraemia, diabetes mellitus, hyperprolactinaemia, retarded growth and delayed puberty in a 14 year old girl. Effect of bromocriptine treatment.

    Investigations in a 14 year old girl with arrested growth for 2 years, delayed pubertal development, hypernatraemia without thirst, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipaemia are reported. The hypernatraemia was accompanied by a low vasopressin concentration with an abnormal response to thirst, high plasma renin but normal plasma aldosterone concentrations. Treatment with vasopressin and increased fluid intake decreased serum sodium levels. serum gonadotrophins were low; GH response during an insulin tolerance test was subnormal and basal serum Prl concentration was elevated. Bone age, thyroid function and adrenal function were normal. After initiation of bromocriptine treatment her growth accelerated and regular menstruations commenced. The serum gonadotrophin levels increased and showed pulsatile release. A hypothalamic disorder is suggested, but no cerebral lesion could be demonstrated.
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