Cases reported "Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2"

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1/80. hepatitis a-induced diabetes mellitus, acute renal failure, and liver failure.

    A 38-year-old otherwise healthy man presented with hepatic failure (aspartate aminotransferase of 7212 U/L, alanine aminotransferase of 6629 U/L, total and direct bilirubin of 10.7 mg/dL) and acute renal failure (creatinine of 11.6 mg/dL and blood urea nitrogen of 42 mg/dL), which required hemodialysis when the creatinine increased to 21 mg/dL, with a blood urea nitrogen of 115 mg/dL, and the patient became oliguric. On admission, this patient also had a lipase of 1833 U/L, amylase of 211 U/L, glucose of 210 mg/dL, and reactive IgM antibody for acute hepatitis a. The hepatitis and acute renal failure resolved in 3 months, but this patient continues to have type II diabetes mellitus 7 years after the hepatitis a infection. This case illustrates that hepatitis a infection may be severe with liver failure, acute renal failure, and permanent diabetes mellitus as sequale of this infection.
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2/80. Patient case studies.

    Three contrasting cases of obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are presented, which illustrate the management difficulties faced by clinicians. The first raises the issue of when to commence an oral hypoglycaemic agent in a newly diagnosed but asymptomatic obese patient; the second case addresses the problem of when to commence insulin in the face of continuing weight gain and poor glycaemic control; the final case is an example of the vicious metabolic spiral which so many patients enter, with increasing body weight, poor diabetic control and associated co-morbidities. The discussion that follows each case presentation recognises the considerable cardiovascular risk faced by such patients and provides guidance about possible management pathways including adjunctive anti-obesity pharmacotherapy.
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3/80. Migratory ichthyosiform dermatosis with type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance.

    BACKGROUND: In addition to the well-defined hereditary primary ichthyoses, many sporadic or less well-defined keratinization disorders with or without systemic manifestations have been reported. Herein we describe ichthyosiform dermatosis associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. OBSERVATIONS: The patients were members of a large Arab family with heavy consanguinity. Eighteen members were affected with a variously severe scaly disorder. They showed migratory polycyclic keratotic scaly plaques evolving into diffuse generalized scaling or complete remission. acanthosis nigricans-like lesions were also noted, and there was an association with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A scarcity of intercorneocyte lamellae and reduction in lamellar body contents were observed. CONCLUSIONS: We could not find a report of a similar dermatosis. Furthermore, an association between ichthyosis and diabetes has not been documented. Therefore, we believe that this may constitute a new entity.
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4/80. Klinefelter's syndrome accompanied by mixed connective tissue disease and diabetes mellitus.

    We report a rare case of Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), diabetes mellitus (DM) and several endocrine disorders. A 57-year-old man presented with polyarthritis and tapering fingers with Raynaud's phenomenon on admission. In addition to a karyotype of 47, XXY, a marked restrictive change in respiratory functional test, a myogenic pattern in electromyogram, the positive tests for anti-RNP antibody indicated that this was a case of KS complicated with MCTD. The patients also presented DM with insulin resistance, hyperprolactinemia, slight primary hypothyroidism and hypoadrenocorticism. The mechanism for these coincidences remains to be elucidated.
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5/80. Cannula related suppurative thrombophlebitis in the burned patient.

    Suppurative thrombophlebitis is a well recognised and potentially fatal complication of intravenous cannulation in burns patients. We report a case of an Afro-Caribbean patient with noninsulin-dependent diabetes who developed signs of systemic sepsis two weeks after a 14% total body surface area flame burn. Despite an initial paucity of clinical signs at the cannulation site, exploratory venotomy revealed frank suppuration within the long saphenous vein from the ankle to the groin. This was treated successfully by total excision of the vein and its tributaries and delayed wound closure. Following this, a retrospective analysis of the measured clinical parameters and blood tests revealed no obvious, missed pointers to the impending sepsis other than a dramatic increase in the overall daily insulin requirement. This had doubled over a 48-h period, preceding the clinical diagnosis by three days. The relevant literature and guidelines for management are reviewed.
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6/80. Three patients with adrenal tumors having been treated simply for diabetes mellitus.

    Three patients with functional adrenal tumors, Cushing's syndrome, primary aldosteronism and pheochromocytoma, who underwent adrenalectomy and were subsequently cured, were studied. All these patients had been treated for diabetes for several years before the diagnosis of adrenal tumors. In each case the state of diabetes before and after surgery, including parameters of insulin secretion and insulin resistance, was compared to demonstrate how the adrenal disorder influenced the nature of diabetes. In the case of Cushing's syndrome the hypercortisolemia caused insulin resistance in the peripheral tissues. In the case of primary aldosteronism, excessive production of aldosterone diminished insulin secretion possibly through hypokalemia. pheochromocytoma affected both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity through hypersecretion of catecholamines. In all these patients the adrenal tumors were found in clinical contexts other than management of diabetes itself. By careful retrospective review of these three patients' history, several important points that might have drawn the physician's attention to the underlying adrenal disorders were pointed out. These included past history of acute myocardial infarction with onset at unexpectedly young age in the case of Cushing's syndrome and unexpectedly high insulin resistance for the patient's body mass index in the case of pheochromocytoma.
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7/80. Hepatocellular carcinoma arising in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    The incidence and significance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has not been previously evaluated in detail. We recently experienced a case of NASH with multicentric HCC in a female patient. At the age of 58 years, the patient was diagnosed with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, treated by insulin therapy. The patient did not drink alcohol. She was negative for all serological markers of hepatitis b and C virus infection. Because of liver dysfunction, a needle biopsy was performed at the age of 62 years, and pathological findings, such as fatty change, Mallory's body, nuclear glycogen and pericellular fibrosis, suggested a diagnosis of NASH. Subsequently, four nodules were detected in the liver by imaging. Liver biopsies were performed from each nodule. One nodule was pathologically diagnosed as a pseudolymphoma, while three other nodules were moderately differentiated HCC (10 years after the diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis), well-differentiated HCC (11 years later) and dysplastic nodule (11 years later), suggesting multicentric occurrence of HCC. This case suggests that HCC could be a late complication of NASH.
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8/80. A case of obesity, diabetes and hypertension treated with very low calorie diet (VLCD) followed by successful pregnancy with intrauterine insemination (IUI).

    The patient was a 32-year-old obese woman with a history of type 2 diabetes and hypertension for 6 years. Although she was treated with antihypertensive agents and intensive insulin therapy, her hyperglycemia was difficult to control. She wanted to have a baby but pregnancy was not recommended because her diabetes was under poor control and the use of antihypertensive medication. To achieve good control of obesity, diabetes and hypertension, she was admitted to our clinical department for weight reduction using very low calorie diet (VLCD). During VLCD she had a 19.8 kg reduction in body weight and her blood glucose and blood pressure were in good control without the use of drugs. Five months later, she became pregnant after the fourth trial of intrauterine insemination (IUI) and gave birth to a female baby under insulin therapy. This is the first report that showed the usefulness of VLCD for prepregnant control of glucose metabolism and blood pressure in an obese hypertensive patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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9/80. carcinoma of temporal bone, base of the skull: diagnosis by needle aspiration cytology.

    We report on a 68-yr-old male with a destructive bone lesion involving the temporal bone at the skull base extending to surrounding osseous structures and the infratemporal fossa, defined by needle aspiration cytology as carcinoma in association with inflammatory reaction, bacterial type, and bone destruction. The technique of the aspiration, which was performed by a cytopathologist directing a spinal needle into the region of the destroyed temporal bone as outlined in the radiographs of prior magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is discussed. The application of this technique in the cytologic sampling of deeper lesions usually of soft or osseous tissues not accessible to ordinary fine-needle aspiration is presented. There is also a brief discussion of neoplastic lesions involving the temporal bone at the skull base and the anatomic concerns in sampling lesions in this difficult-to-approach region of the body.
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10/80. Long-term effects of topiramate on bipolar mood instability, weight change and glycemic control: a case-series.

    Topiramate is an antiepileptic agent, which is being investigated as a mood-stabilizer. Three obese individuals with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder and type II diabetes mellitus received topiramate treatment in combination with antipsychotics and valproate or carbamazepine. In addition to improved mood stability, these individuals lost between 16 to 20.5% of their pre-topiramate body weight and also achieved significant glycemic control.
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