Cases reported "Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2"

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1/134. poems syndrome, steroid-dependent diabetes mellitus, erythema elevatum diutinum, and rheumatoid arthritis as extramedullary manifestations of plasma cell dyscrasia.

    poems syndrome is a rare synopsis of different multisystemic disorders (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammapathy, and skin lesions) associated with plasma cell dyscrasia. We herein report the atypical case of a 44-year-old white man presenting with glomerulopathy, poems syndrome, and erythema elevatum diutinum with a few-year history of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as early manifestations of IgAlambda multiple myeloma. The prescription of 1 mg/kg/day prednisone improved the patient's features dramatically. skin lesions improved by the association of glucocorticoids and plasma exchange, recurred when plasmapheresis ceased, and remitted when plasma exchange was reintroduced. NIDDM requiring insulinotherapy recurred when corticoids were discontinued and remitted when prednisone was reintroduced. However, prednisone and plasmapheresis had no effect on polyneuropathy, M-paraprotein, and plasma cell dyscrasia in our patient, who developed indolent multiple myeloma a few years later. We thus concluded that poems syndrome, steroid-dependent diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, RA, and skin vasculitis in our patient were triggered by plasma cell dyscrasia.
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ranking = 1
keywords = neuropathy
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2/134. Thermal biofeedback for claudication in diabetes: a literature review and case study.

    temperature biofeedback (TBFB) is designed to alter cutaneous temperature in treated extremities by providing information corresponding to minor temperature fluctuations in the context of therapeutic structure and reinforcement. Toe TBFB may improve vascular flow and walking tolerance in patients with peripheral vascular disease. This case study documents improved walking in a diabetes patient with lower extremity complications, and suggests TBFB might increase lower extremity temperature and blood flow volume pulse in uncomplicated diabetes. ankle-brachial index (ABI) and walking function were assessed in a 60-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes and intermittent claudication, before and after five sessions of TBFB applied to the ventral surface of the great toe. Toe temperature increased during feedback phases but not during baseline phases. Improvements were seen in ankle-brachial index, walking distance, walking speed, and stair climbing. This case indicates the need for extended and controlled study of TBFB for improved vascular and ambulatory function in diabetic claudication.
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ranking = 0.26906606115817
keywords = peripheral
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3/134. An unusual manifestation of diabetes mellitus.

    MEDICAL history: Type 2 diabetes mellitus for five years; unexplained 35-lb weight loss three years ago; Bell's palsy on right side many years ago. MEDICATIONS: glipizide, 10 mg/day. family history: Father died of leukemia at age 65; mother has kidney stones; no diabetes or neuromuscular disease. SOCIAL history: insurance salesman; heterosexual, promiscuous, uses condoms; smokes (25 pack years); does not drink. physical examination: Well-nourished, well developed, not in acute distress; had difficulty rising from a sitting position because of right lower extremity weakness. blood pressure, 154/74; pulse, 88; temperature, 36.6 degrees C; respiratory rate, 16. head, eyes, ears, nose, and throat: normal. neck: normal. heart: S4. Lungs: clear. abdomen: mildly obese. extremities: no cyanosis, clubbing, or edema; atrophy and weakness of right thigh and both calves; wide-based gait; able to walk on toes but not heels. Neurologic responses: cranial nerves intact; deep tendon reflexes, 1 symmetrically; plantar reflexes, flexor bilaterally. skin: macular rash in sun-exposed areas. LABORATORY FINDINGS: Hemoglobin, 13.2 gm/dL; mean corpuscular volume, 80 micron 3; white blood cell count, 7,200/mm3 (normal differential); platelet count, 137,000/mm3. serum: electrolytes, normal; blood urea nitrogen, 18 mg/dL; creatinine, 0.8 mg/dL; glucose, 308 mg/dL; total protein, albumin, liver enzymes, and creatine kinase, normal. urine: 1 glucose. Venereal disease test: nonreactive; hiv test: negative. DIFFERENTIAL diagnosis: dermatomyositis; heavy-metal poisoning; diabetic amyotrophy. HOSPITAL COURSE: The patient was given 50 mg/day of oral amitriptyline to alleviate the painful paresthesias and was switched to 20 U/day of subcutaneously injected neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin to normalize the blood glucose level. Histologic studies of skin and muscle showed sun damage and neuropathic changes, respectively. There was no evidence of vasculitis. Screening for heavy-metal toxins produced negative results.
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ranking = 0.0072189392780424
keywords = nerve
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4/134. Use of topical recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (becaplermin) in healing of chronic mixed arteriovenous lower extremity diabetic ulcers.

    lower extremity ulcers cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. The primary factors that contribute to the development of this type of ulcer are peripheral neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease, which are often accompanied by infection. lower extremity diabetic ulcers are chronic and difficult to treat, in part due to underlying pathologic conditions in individuals with diabetes that can contribute to impaired wound healing. This article reports the author's experience with treatment of chronic lower extremity ulcers of mixed etiologies with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor--BB [rhPDGF-BB, REGRANEX (becaplermin) Gel 0.01%] in a patient with multiple risk factors including long-standing insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes.
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ranking = 2.4740065957186
keywords = peripheral neuropathy, neuropathy, peripheral
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5/134. Nontraumatic clostridial myonecrosis.

    We describe three cases of nontraumatic clostridial myonecrosis seen at the Victorian Institute of forensic medicine. Nontraumatic clostridial myonecrosis is an uncommon and often fatal condition that requires immediate institution of appropriate medical and surgical therapy. It is most commonly caused by clostridium perfringens and clostridium septicum and is associated with gastrointestinal and hematologic malignancies, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral vascular disease. The clinical features include a rapidly evolving acute illness with severe pain, marked tachycardia, and brawny discoloration of the skin with bullae formation and crepitus, followed by hypotension and acute renal failure. Features at autopsy include reddish brown skin discoloration with bullae formation and necrotic skeletal muscle. Radiographs may be of use prior to the postmortem in detecting gas within the soft tissues. Gram stain and microbiologic culture are important in establishing a definitive diagnosis; although the major factors in suggesting the diagnosis are the recognition of the typical clinical history and macroscopic autopsy findings.
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ranking = 0.26906606115817
keywords = peripheral
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6/134. Elevated plantar pressure and ulceration in diabetic patients after panmetatarsal head resection: two case reports.

    Panmetatarsal head resection (variously called forefoot arthroplasty, forefoot resection arthroplasty, the Hoffman procedure, and the Fowler procedure) was developed for the relief of pain and deformity in rheumatoid arthritis. Although there are successful retrospective series reported in the literature, such an approach is not supported by carefully designed controlled trials. This procedure has also been advocated by some for the relief of plantar pressure in diabetic patients who are at risk for plantar ulceration. The efficacy of the procedure in this context is not supported by existing pressure measurements on rheumatoid arthritis patients in the literature, which has tended to show that although pain relief is obtained, the procedure results in elevation of forefoot pressure. case reports are described of two patients (three feet) with sensory neuropathy who presented to our clinic 1 to 2 years after panmetatarsal head resections had been performed. Peak plantar pressures in these feet during first step gait were above the 99th percentile and outside the measuring range of the device used (EMED SF platform; NOVEL electronics Inc., St. Paul, MN). Both patients had also experienced plantar ulcers subsequent to the surgery. Combining the information on patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with that from our two case studies, we conclude that panmetatarsal head resection does not necessarily eliminate focal regions of elevated plantar pressure.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = neuropathy
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7/134. Necrotizing fasciitis after cosmetic blepharoplasty.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of necrotizing fasciitis after cosmetic blepharoplasty. METHOD: Case report. A 74-year-old woman with history of type II diabetes mellitus underwent bilateral upper eyelid blepharoplasty. Postoperatively she developed fever, grayish discoloration of the skin, violaceous bullae, and a right facial nerve palsy. Necrotizing fasciitis was diagnosed and treated with intravenous antibiotics, debridement of necrotic tissue, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. RESULTS: The infection resolved, but the patient required reconstruction for correction of cicatricial ectropion. CONCLUSION: Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection that typically occurs in the setting of trauma. Early recognition of its pathognomonic signs and aggressive management are paramount.
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ranking = 0.0072189392780424
keywords = nerve
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8/134. Diabetic neuropathic pain in a leg amputated 44 years previously.

    The mechanism of neuropathic pain in the diabetic limb is far from clear. phantom limb pain likewise is of obscure aetiology. The development of typical pain in an absent leg in a patient with diabetes many years after the amputation stimulates thought as to the mechanism, not only of neuropathic pain, but also of phantom limb pain. A 58-year-old man was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes 44 years after having undergone left below knee amputation for congenital AV malformation, at the age of 13. Eight months before the diagnosis of diabetes he began to complain of pain in the leg on the amputated side-pain very similar to that described in typical diabetic neuropathy. This was followed by similar pain in the right leg. MR scan of the spine revealed a small syringohydromyelia of the thoracic cord in addition to a prolapse of disc at L(5)/S(1) level on the left side, which was first noted 5 years previously. There were no other features of S(1) compression. The typical neuropathic character of the pain involving both the amputated and the intact limbs that developed with the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes suggest that the neuropathic pain may originate from centres higher than peripheral nerves.
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ranking = 0.77628500043621
keywords = neuropathy, peripheral, nerve
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9/134. Bell's palsy during interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis c infection in patients with haemorrhagic disorders.

    Two adult patients with life-long severe haemorrhagic disorders commenced on interferon-alpha2b therapy for chronic hepatitis c infection. Both developed Bell's palsy several weeks after commencing therapy, They were started on steroids and, in addition, the first patient discontinued interferon-alpha2b therapy while the second patient elected to continue with therapy. In both cases facial paralysis improved over the ensuing weeks. Bell's palsy is often idiopathic but has been reported. in association with herpesviruses. It is not a recognised complication of chronic hepatitis b or C infection, or interferon-alpha2b therapy. However, the interferons are associated with numerous adverse reactions including various neuropsychiatric manifestations and neurological syndromes. There are several reports of nerve palsies, including optic tract neuropathy, occurring during interferon therapy, and immune-based mechanisms are thought to play a role in the aetiopathogenesis. No reports of Bell's palsy in association with interferon therapy were identified in our literature search, although one possible case has been reported to the Committee of safety in Medicine. Although Bell's palsy in our patients may have occurred by chance, a neuropathic effect of interferon-alpha2b on the facial nerve cannot be excluded and we urge physicians using interferons to be aware of this potential side-effect.
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ranking = 0.51443787855608
keywords = neuropathy, nerve
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10/134. Skeletal muscle infarction in diabetes mellitus.

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the risk factors, clinical features, and methods of diagnosis of diabetic muscle infarction (DMI). methods: Three patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and skeletal muscle infarction were studied, and 49 additional cases reported in the English literature (medline database search) were reviewed. RESULTS: review of all 52 patients with DMI revealed a number of typical features: equal sex distribution; mean age 41.5 years (range 19-81 yrs); a number of risk factors [long duration of DM (mean 15.2 yrs), poor control and microvascular diabetic complications (neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy) (94%), and insulin dependent type I DM (77%)]; a characteristic clinical presentation with painful diffuse muscle swelling (100%); and sometimes a muscle mass (44%), predilection for quadriceps (62%), hip adductors (13%) and leg muscles (13%), elevated serum creatine phosphokinase (47%), abnormal sonograms (81%), abnormal magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings (100%), typical histopathologic findings of a muscle infarct (100%) (ultrastructural evidence of microangiography in one patient); and a tendency toward spontaneous resolution although recurrences are common (51%). CONCLUSION: Skeletal muscle infarction is a rare complication of long standing, poorly controlled DM associated with multiple end organ microvascular sequelae. Increased clinical awareness is important for early recognition, particularly in a diabetic patient presenting with a painful thigh or leg swelling. MR imaging is the diagnostic study of choice, and in the appropriate clinical setting, may obviate the need for a muscle biopsy.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = neuropathy
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