Cases reported "Diabetic Ketoacidosis"

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1/316. Pseudo myocardial infarct--electrocardiographic pattern in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis.

    diabetic ketoacidosis is an extremely serious complication of diabetes mellitus. It arises because of a complex disturbance in glucose metabolism. There is usually a precipitating cause such as sepsis or myocardial infarction. If not recognised and appropriately treated, it can have devastating consequences. This is a case report of a patient with severe diabetic ketoacidosis and interesting electrocardiographic findings. The initial electrocardiographic (ECG) findings were suggestive of an acute myocardial infarction. The ECG changes normalised remarkably following initial management of the diabetic ketoacidosis. There have been only occasional reports of hyperkalemia causing electrocardiographic changes, closely resembling those of acute myocardial infarction.
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2/316. Severe diabetic ketoacidosis: the need for large doses of insulin.

    A 21-year-old female with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) presented in ketoacidosis. She received intravenous normal saline and insulin at 6 U/h and 1.26% sodium bicarbonate solution. After the blood glucose had fallen to 9.5 mmol/l, the saline infusion was changed to 5% glucose solution and the insulin infusion rate to 2 to 3 U/h. The next day the patient became more drowsy (glasgow coma scale 13/15, later falling to 4/15). Computed tomography (CT) scan suggested cerebral oedema and the patient was treated with dexamethasone and mannitol. She remained critically ill for 48 h, eventually making a full recovery. insulin was given at rates of 8 to 14 U/h, with 10% or 20% glucose infusion to maintain the blood glucose above 5 mmol/l; despite this it was not until the fifth day that her serum bicarbonate became normal. textbooks usually advise starting insulin at 6 U/h and reducing the infusion rate to 1-4 U/h when the blood glucose falls below a certain level. In this case, even with high rates of insulin infusion, it took 5 days before the patient's serum bicarbonate returned to normal. Thus, in severe diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), protocols should advise that the insulin infusion be continued at high dose (4 to 6 U/h or more), with appropriate glucose infusion to prevent hypoglycaemia, until the serum bicarbonate is normal or nearly so.
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3/316. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum.

    In this paper two cases of spontaneous pneumomediastinum, occurring in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis and in a patient with bronchial asthma, are presented. We describe the radiological findings, the differential diagnosis and the important radiographic considerations in establishing the diagnosis. In addition, we discuss the anatomical pathways and review the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the development of respiratory spontaneous pneumomediastinum.
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4/316. Mixed acid-base abnormalities in diabetes.

    This study is a description of a patient who exhibited diabetic ketosis associated with an alkalosis rather than acidosis and a review of eight previously reported cases. precipitating factors for this syndrome are severe vomiting with loss of hydrogen, potassium, and chloride ions, and dehydration. The ingestion of alkali may also result in this mixed acid-base disturbance. Treatment consists primarily of replacement of potassium and chloride. All reported patients had received large doses of insulin for initial therapy; however, limited insulin (20 U) therapy in this patient almost completely reversed the metabolic abnormality with 12 hours.
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5/316. A dentoalveolar abscess in a pediatric patient with ketoacidosis caused by occult diabetes mellitus: a case report.

    oral health professionals are frequently asked to evaluate patients with routine odontogenic infections. These patients can sometimes present with systemic signs and symptoms, including fever, malaise, tachycardia, and dehydration. It is important for the astute clinician to understand the possible associated systemic diseases that may be contributing to odontogenic infections. We present here an interesting case of a pediatric patient with a routine canine space infection who exhibited classic clinical signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis.
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6/316. Painful swelling of the thigh in a diabetic patient: diabetic muscle infarction.

    A 44-year-old woman with a 5-year history of poorly controlled Type 1 diabetes mellitus presented with a painful, firm and warm swelling in her right thigh. pain was severe but the patient was not febrile, and had no history of trauma or abnormal exercise. Laboratory tests showed ketoacidosis, major inflammation (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) = 83 mm/h), normal white blood cell count and normal creatine kinase level. Plain radiographs were normal, and there were no signs of thrombophlebitis at Doppler ultrasound. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse enlargement and an oedematous pattern of the adductors, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius and sartorius of the right thigh. The patient's symptoms improved dramatically, making biopsy unnecessary, and a diagnosis of diabetic muscular infarction was reached. Idiopathic muscular infarction is a rare and specific complication of diabetes mellitus, typically presenting as a severely painful mass in a lower limb, with high ESR. The diabetes involved is generally poorly controlled longstanding Type 1 diabetes with established microangiopathy. Differential diagnoses include deep vein thrombosis, acute exertional compartment syndrome, muscle rupture, soft tissue abscess, haematoma, sarcoma, inflammatory or calcifying myositis and pyomyositis. In fact, physician awareness should allow early diagnosis on the basis of clinical presentation, routine laboratory tests and MRI, thereby avoiding biopsy and its potential complications as well as unnecessary investigations. rest, symptomatic pain relief and adequate control of diabetes usually ensure progressive total recovery within a few weeks. Recurrences may occur in the same or contralateral limb.
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7/316. Bilateral basal ganglion haemorrhage in diabetic ketoacidotic coma: case report.

    We report bilateral oedema and haemorrhagic transformation in the basal ganglia of a 59-year old woman with severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Lack of cerebral vascular autoregulation, followed by blood-brain barrier disruption due to the so-called breakthrough mechanism is presumed to be the cause.
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8/316. diabetic ketoacidosis precipitated by thyrotoxicosis.

    We report two patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, previously well controlled with good compliance, presenting with unexplained diabetic ketoacidosis. Following initial correction of the metabolic disorder, persisting tachycardia lead to the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. In both cases, treatment with propranolol and carbimazole helped in the stabilization of their metabolic states. Although thyrotoxicosis is known to destabilize diabetes control, we can find no reports of it precipitating diabetic ketoacidosis.
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9/316. Riding out a diabetic emergency.

    Acute complications of diabetes are like a runaway roller coaster. Diabetes or its treatment can rocket your patient's blood glucose level to dizzying heights or plunge it to life-threatening lows. hypoglycemia, the most common endocrine emergency, typically occurs in a known diabetic patient whose therapy with insulin or oral diabetes agents goes awry. At the opposite extreme, soaring blood glucose levels mark the acute conditions diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state (HHNS). These complications may send the patient to the emergency department (ED) before he even knows he has diabetes. In this article, I'll explain how these problems develop and spell out nursing measures to get your patient back on track.
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10/316. Central brain herniation secondary to juvenile diabetic ketoacidosis.

    We present the CT, MR, and autopsy findings of central brain herniation in a 9-year-old boy undergoing treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Severe cerebral edema resulting in central brain herniation is an uncommon complication of the treatment of DKA but carries with it high morbidity and mortality. Radiologic imaging and autopsy findings in this case revealed striking infarctions of central brain structures.
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