Cases reported "Diabetic Nephropathies"

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21/82. The grafted kidney takes over: disappearance of the nephrotic syndrome after preemptive pancreas-kidney and kidney transplantation in diabetic nephropathy.

    This report describes the rapid and complete reversal of proteinuria after preemptive transplantation in diabetic nephropathy. Case 1 was a 42-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes (before pancreas-kidney graft: serum creatinine 1.6 mg/dL and proteinuria 9.1 g/day; 1 month after pancreas-kidney graft: proteinuria 0.3 g/day and creatinine 1.3 mg/dL). Case 2 was a 48-year-old man with type 2 diabetes (before kidney graft: creatinine 2 mg/dL and proteinuria 5.9 g/day; 1 month after: proteinuria 0.7 g/day and creatinine 1.1 mg/dL). The proteinuria pattern changed (pre: glomerular nonselective, tubular complete; post: physiologic). Renal scintiscan (99mTC-MAG3) demonstrated functional exclusion of the native kidneys, despite high pretransplant clearance (> 50 mL/min). The effect was not linked to euglycemia or readily explainable by pharmacologic effects (no difference in renal parameters after pancreas transplantation with the same protocols). These data confirm the efficacy of preemptive kidney and kidney-pancreas transplantation in diabetic nephrotic syndrome and indicate that a regulatory hemodynamic effect should be investigated.
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22/82. Use of low molecular weight heparins and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Despite aggressive intervention, cardiac causes of death, including acute coronary syndrome (ACS), continue to be a major source of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), including end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Multiple large prospective trials have demonstrated the clinical benefits of both low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and glycoprotein (Gp) IIb/IIIa inhibitors in treating patients with ACS. Unfortunately patients with significant impairment of kidney function have generally been excluded from these major clinical trials. Consequently relatively little is known about the pharmacokinetics, appropriate dosing, efficacy, and safety of these medications in patients with CKD of various stages. This article examines the available literature regarding the pharmacokinetics, dosing, efficacy, and safety of LMWH and Gp IIb/IIIa inhibitors in patients with CKD.
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keywords = kidney disease, kidney
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23/82. cytomegalovirus infection of the graft duodenum and urinary bladder after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation.

    cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of morbidity after solid organ transplantation. We report a case of CMV infection involving the transplanted duodenum that developed after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. The patient, a 30-year-old woman with insulin-dependent diabetes undergoing hemodialysis due to chronic renal failure, received a simultaneous cadaveric pancreas-kidney transplantation. The exocrine secretion was diverted using bladder drainage. immunosuppression was maintained by a combination of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids together with OKT3 induction. Both the donor and the recipient were serologically positive for CMV IgG CMV prophylaxis consisted of a short course of parenteral gancyclovir. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 39 with normal pancreas and kidney function. She presented 2 months after transplantation with hematuria. Cystoscopic pancreas allograft biopsy specimens showed evidence of tissue invasive CMV infection in the graft duodenum and bladder. The CMV antigenemia test was positive. At 4 months after transplantation, the patient underwent surgery with the diagnosis of acute abdomen. The surgical findings consisted of a diffuse acute purulent peritonitis due to perforation of the duodenal graft. We sutured the perforation with nonreabsorbable material. The CMV antigenemia test was negative. Eight days later, the patient developed massive hematuria. At surgery, the graft was removed. The patient was discharged from the hospital with normal renal function. Pathological study of the removed graft showed the duodenal segment to have multiple wide ulcers with CMV inclusions in epithelial cells.
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keywords = kidney
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24/82. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation with portal-enteric drainage: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK) with portal-enteric drainage is physiological effective in treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus complicated by end-stage renal disease. A case is reported with a review of our clinical experience. methods: A patient with type 2 diabetes complicated by renal failure was subjected to SPK transplantation with portal-enteric drainage. Pancreaticoduodenal allograft procured from corpse was transplanted to recipient's right abdomen with donor's portal vein anastomosed to recipient's superior mesenteric vein. Donor's plastic pancreas artery was anastomosed to recipient's right common iliac artery and donor's duodenum anastomosed to recipient's jejunum. The kidney allograft was transplanted ectopically to the contralateral iliac fossa. Postoperative immunosuppression includes tacrolimus (TAC)/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)-based regimen and methylprednisolone or prednisone. RESULTS: On the 5th postoperative day, the level of blood creatinine decreased from 590 micromol/L to normal. Daily urine volume was about 2500 ml. On the 18th postoperative day, insulin was given up, and the levels of fasting blood-glucose and after meal blood-glucose were kept normal. No acute rejection symptoms or other complications were observed except infection of pseudomonas aeruginosa. CONCLUSION: Combined pancreas and kidney transplantation with portal-enteric drainage is a physiological effective treatment for diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease.
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25/82. toxoplasmosis after a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation.

    We report the case of a simultaneous kidney and pancreas transplant recipient who presented with vague neurologic symptoms 21 months following the surgery. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and fundoscopy findings were normal. serology titers for antitoxoplasmic antibodies were increased. This was an atypical presentation of toxoplasmosis in a simultaneous kidney and pancreas transplant patient.
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keywords = kidney
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26/82. fusarium peritonitis concomitant to kidney transplantation successfully managed with voriconazole: case report and review of the literature.

    fusarium infections in solid organ transplant recipients are often localized, occur later in the post-transplantation period, and have a better outcome than fusarial infections in patients with hematologic malignancies or bone marrow transplants. We report the first case of proven peritonitis caused by fusarium species in a renal transplant recipient which is also the first successfully managed with voriconazole. We also review previously reported cases of fusarial infection in solid organ transplant recipients.
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27/82. The first successful simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant in india.

    insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is associated with renal failure, diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy and vasculopathy. We report the first successful simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant in india in a young diabetic with renal failure. The dual transplant has cured his diabetes and renal failure and has had a beneficial effect on his neuropathy, retinopathy and quality of life. Obstacles to dual transplant in india include a lack of suitable recipients and a cadaver donor programme that is still in its infancy.
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keywords = kidney
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28/82. diabetes mellitus and the kidney in adolescents.

    Diabetic nephropathy continues to be a major complication of both types I and II diabetes; renal disease in the two types of diabetes exhibits no major differences with regard to initiation, progression, or treatment. The increasing prevalence of type II diabetes among adolescents means that understanding diabetic nephropathy and its prevention and treatment strategies is increasingly important for physicians caring for this population. The most important prevention and treatment modalities for diabetic nephropathy are improved glycemic control and aggressive blood pressure control, beginning as soon as possible after the diagnosis of diabetes.
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keywords = kidney
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29/82. Pancreas islet transplantation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus after kidney transplantation.

    Diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease have a high mortality rate. A combined kidney-pancreas transplant is associated with greater life expectancy. Pancreas islet transplantation is an alternative involving a lower degree of morbidity. We present two patients, of 41 and 37 years of age, with a long history of diabetes mellitus (c-peptide negative), both with a previous kidney transplant, who had been treated with 22 and 28 U of insulin/d, respectively. Both patients had frequent episodes of unawareness hypoglycemia. Pancreatic islets were infused to a total of 7809 and 19,180 IE/kg, respectively. Basal posttransplant C peptide levels were 2.9 and 1.3 ng/mL. After the implant, one patient required occasional doses of insulin, and the other patient more than 50% reduced dose. After the first implant neither patient had any episodes of unawareness hypoglycemia. HbA1c at 4 months were 6.2% and 6.9%. There were no transplant-related complications.
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30/82. Multiple neoplastic lesions of the lower genital tract in a human papilloma virus-infected kidney-pancreas allograft recipient: a case report.

    States of immunodeficiency are associated with an increased rate of certain cancers. Immunosuppressed allograft recipients are at high risk of Human papilloma Virus (HPV)-related de novo malignancies. A female pancreas plus kidney transplant patient developed multiple genital malignancies within 6 years. The genome of human papilloma virus type 16 was detected in malignant lesions obtained from surgical procedures. All detected lesions were removed at an early state of development.
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