Cases reported "diabetic neuropathies"

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11/323. The spectrum of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    research criteria for the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) were proposed by an Ad Hoc Subcommittee of the American Academy of neurology (AAN) in 1991, and since then these criteria have been widely used in clinical studies. We have been impressed by the frequent finding of electrophysiological changes of a demyelinating neuropathy in patients whose clinical presentation does not conform to the usually accepted clinical phenotype of CIDP. To determine the clinical spectrum of CIDP, we conducted a retrospective review of patients of the peripheral electrophysiology laboratory of the University of Miami-Jackson Memorial Medical Center. Diagnostic criteria for acquired demyelination of an individual nerve were adapted from the AAN research criteria for the diagnosis of CIDP (1991). patients were accepted for inclusion when such evidence was demonstrated in at least one motor nerve or at least two sensory nerves. We then reviewed the clinical phenotype and the underlying etiology of the neuropathy in these cases. Eighty-seven patients, 63 male and 24 female, age of onset 4-84 (mean 49.3) years, met these inclusion criteria. Forty-seven patients (54%) had distinct features outside the usual clinical presentation of CIDP. Of these, 15 (17%) had predominantly distal features, 13 (15%) had exclusively sensory polyneuropathy; seven (8%) had markedly asymmetric disease, seven (8%) had associated CNS demyelination, four (5%) had predominant cranial nerve involvement, and one (1%) had only the restless legs syndrome. An associated medical condition that may have been responsible for the acquired demyelinating neuropathy was present in 60% of the patients. We conclude that spectrum of CIDP is broader than would be indicated by the strict application of the AAN research criteria, and that many of the cases meeting more liberal criteria frequently respond to immunosuppressive therapy. ( info)

12/323. Severe hypertension induced by the long-acting somatostatin analogue sandostatin LAR in a patient with diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    A 26-yr-old woman with type 1 diabetes and severe symptomatic autonomic neuropathy was treated with the long-acting somatostatin analogue Sandostatin LAR for intractable diarrhea. Her diarrhea had previously been successfully managed with three daily injections of octreotide without adverse consequences. She was given a single dose of Sandostatin LAR and within 2 weeks reported the development of increasingly frequent and severe headaches. Three weeks after the injection, she was admitted to hospital with severe hypertension, which eventually resolved with the administration of antihypertensive agents. No other underlying cause of the hypertension was discovered. Rechallenge of the patient with octreotide resulted in a transient hypertensive episode, which lasted 3 h. Severe hypertension, therefore, seems to be a possible adverse effect of treatment of diabetic diarrhea with somatostatin analogues, which should be used with great caution in subjects with severe autonomic dysfunction. ( info)

13/323. Gustatory sweating and diabetes.

    Gustatory sweating as a feature of autonomic neuropathy is an unusual phenomenon in diabetes mellitus. We describe a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus complicated by retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. This patient presented with bilateral diffuse facial sweating during eating. She was treated with the antimuscarine agent oxybutynine, which provided a striking relief from the gustatory sweating. ( info)

14/323. Clinico-pathological features of postural hypotension in diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    We report the clinico-pathological features and management of a 49-year-old male with a 30-year history of Type 1 diabetes mellitus who had nephropathy (proteinuria 1.81 g/24 h, creatinine 136 micromol/l), proliferative retinopathy and severe somatic and autonomic neuropathy. A sural nerve biopsy demonstrated marked myelinated fibre loss with unmyelinated fibre degeneration and regeneration combined with extensive endoneurial microangiopathy. The management of the patient's blood pressure problems (supine hypertension) and symptomatic postural hypotension is discussed. ( info)

15/323. Acute painful diabetic neuropathy: two patients with recent insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Two young men developed an acute painful peripheral neuropathy a few weeks after being diagnosed to suffer from an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In both cases, peripheral nerve biopsy exhibited a few features of acute axonal degeneration. Additionally, in the first case there was a lymphocytic infiltrate around an endoneurial capillary, and in the second case there were several mast cells in the endoneurium of every fascicle examined. A few months later, the acute pain had disappeared in both cases. Only a few cases of acute painful diabetic neuropathy have been reported so far. A vascular origin seems unlikely and metabolic disorders are probably due to a contemporary severe weight loss. An auto-immune mechanism is an alternative explanation. ( info)

16/323. smoking--a renal risk factor.

    One of the most important tasks of clinical and experimental nephrology is to identify the risk factors of progression of renal failure. A major renal risk factor which has not been sufficiently acknowledged despite increasing evidence is cigarette smoking. Diabetologists were the first to recognize the adverse effects of smoking on the kidney: both in type 1 and in type 2 diabetes smoking (i) increases the risk of development of nephropathy and (ii) nearly doubles the rate of progression to end-stage renal failure. Until recently it was not known whether smoking also increases the risk to progress to end-stage renal failure in patients with primary renal disease. A retrospective multicenter European case-control study showed that smoking is an independent risk factor for end-stage renal failure in patients with inflammatory and noninflammatory renal disease, i.e. IgA glomerulonephritis and polycystic kidney disease. The pathogenesis of the smoking-related renal damage is largely unknown. The intermittent increase in blood pressure during smoking seems to play a major role in causing renal damage, but further potential pathomechanisms are presumably also operative. smoking as a renal risk factor is of great interest to diabetologists as well as nephrologists, but unfortunately so far this information has had little impact on patient management. The present article reviews the current knowledge about the renal risks of smoking and discusses the potential mechanisms of smoking-mediated renal injury. ( info)

17/323. A case of hand ulceration in the diabetic foot clinic--a reminder of hand neuropathy in 'at risk' patients.

    BACKGROUND: A case of hand ulceration in a diabetic patient with known lower extremity complications is presented. Although often asymptomatic, quantitative testing in patients indicates reduced hand sensation in patients with lower extremity neuropathy. hand neuropathy may occasionally lead to anaesthetic injuries, particularly in certain 'manual' occupations, as seen in our patient. CONCLUSIONS: education on hand care is virtually nonexistent in most clinic settings, and our case highlights the need for more awareness on this potentially troublesome complication. ( info)

18/323. polymyalgia rheumatica and type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with electromyographic abnormalities that responded well to corticosteroid therapy.

    A 62-year-old man who had a 14-year history of diabetes complained of low-grade fever, general malaise, pain of bilateral femurs and hip girdle, and was adniitted to our hospital. The diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) was made from the clinical symptoms, elevated c-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. electromyography revealed abnormalities that suggested diabetic peripheral neuropathy. However, the abnormalities were improved after starting treatment with corticosteroids (PSL). After stopping PSL, electric nerve conduction disturbance developed; therefore, it was suggested that peripheral nerve involvement due to PMR was improved by administration of PSL regardless of the existence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. ( info)

19/323. Foot ulceration in diabetic patients.

    Foot care is very important if patients with diabetes are to avoid ulceration complications. Kate Springett explains the importance of educating the patient to be aware of signs and symptoms of foot ulceration, and outlines the best management techniques within the scope of a multiprofessional care team. ( info)

20/323. Human immunoglobulin for diabetic amyotrophy--a promising prospect?

    diabetic neuropathies are universally recognised and cause significant morbidity. At present improving glycaemic control is the only recognised treatment. A man with type 2 diabetes presented with disabling asymmetric lower limb proximal neuropathy. Rapid clinical, functional, and electrical improvement followed treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. The aetiology of diabetic amyotrophy remains controversial but there is evidence for an immune mediated process and this case suggests a role for immunoglobulin in the management of this debilitating condition. ( info)
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