Cases reported "Diarrhea, Infantile"

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1/5. Familial enteropathy: a syndrome of protracted diarrhea from birth, failure to thrive, and hypoplastic villus atrophy.

    We have studied 5 infants with persistent severe diarrhea from birth and marked abnormalities of absorption associated with failure to thrive leading to death in 4 infants. Three had siblings who died and a sibling of a 4th is ill at present, all with a similar illness; 2 were the products of consanguinous marriages. Exhaustive investigation failed to identify a recognized disease entity in any patient. steatorrhea, sugar malabsorption, dehydration, and acidosis were severe in all patients, whatever the diet fed. Total parenteral nutrition was used, but excessive stool water and electrolyte losses persisted even when nothing was fed by mouth. There was no evidence of a hematological or consistent immunological defect in any infant and no abnormalities of intestinal hormones were noted. In the duodenal mucosa of all infants we saw similar abnormalities characterized by villus atrophy, crypt hypoplasia without an increase in mitoses or inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lamina propria and in villus enterocytes absence of a brush border, increase in lysosome-like inclusions, and autophagocytosis. In 3 infants studied by marker perfusion of the proximal jejunum we found abnormal glucose absorption and a blunted response of Na absorption to actively transported nonelectrolytes; in 2 there was net secretion of Na and H2O in the basal state. Our patients evidently suffered from a congenital enteropathy which caused profound defects in their capacity to assimilate nutrients. The similar structural lesion seen in the small intestinal epithelium of all of our cases undoubtedly contributed to their compromised intestinal function, but the pathogenesis of this disorder, if indeed it is a single disease, remains obscure.
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2/5. Isolated deficient alpha6beta4 integrin expression in the gut associated with intractable diarrhea.

    BACKGROUND: An infant born with pyloric atresia had development of intractable diarrhea and was found to have total epithelial detachment of gastric and small and large bowel mucosa. She had no skin abnormalities. Parental consanguinity and pyloric atresia in a sibling who died without autopsy suggest an inherited origin for this disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine defects in intestinal and skin cell adhesion. methods: Histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural characteristics of the skin and gut of the patient were compared with that of normal control subjects. Distribution of adhesion molecules was determined. RESULTS: Immunofluorescent analysis of the digestive mucosa showed alpha6beta4 integrin expression deficiency at the epithelial cell-lamina propria junction. Ultrastructural examination of the digestive mucosa revealed a complete epithelial detachment with a cleavage plane lying between the lamina densa and the basal pole of the enterocytes. Consistent with the absence of skin blistering, integrin alpha6beta4 was expressed at the dermal-epidermal junction. Electron micrographs of skin biopsy specimens showed the presence of normal hemidesmosomes and the absence of dermal-epidermal dysadhesion. CONCLUSION: It was postulated that this patient had protracted diarrhea related to epithelial detachment of the digestive mucosa as a consequence of a deficiency of an integrin alpha6beta4 isoform specific to the gut.
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3/5. Microvillous inclusion disease.

    Congenital defects in the intestinal mucosa can provoke diarrhea in the neonatal period. This kind of diarrhea is difficult to treat and the outcome is bad if intestinal transplantation is not done. We describe the case of newborn female with severe protracted secretory diarrhea, which started after first oral intake of breast milk. The newborn presented with severe dehydration and persistent metabolic acidosis though potential treatment was not stopped. endoscopy with the biopsies from the distal part of duodenum mucosa was done on the third week of life. Histological examination revealed the pathological mucosa with the total microvillous atrophy, surface epithelium thinning and histochemical PAS (periodic acid-schiff reaction) positivity of enterocytes apical region. These changes are typical for rare microvillous inclusion disease. When the diagnosis of microvillous inclusion disease is made, the only treatment is total parenteral nutrition and intestinal transplantation.
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keywords = enterocytes
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4/5. Familial autoimmune enteropathy with circulating anti-bullous pemphigoid antibodies and chronic autoimmune hepatitis.

    In a family of four children (two boys and two girls), the two brothers had severe, protracted watery diarrhea beginning at 2 and 3 weeks of life, respectively. Duodenal mucosa in both patients showed total villous atrophy and severe inflammatory infiltration of the entire bowel. The first patient also had lymphoid cell infiltration of the pancreas and died at 6 weeks of age. The second boy is alive at 2 years of age and is immunocompetent, but still receives total parenteral nutrition. Indirect immunofluorescence studies revealed circulating antibodies to enterocytes, smooth muscle, thyroid, and islet cells. Bullous pemphigoid antibodies (230 and 180 kd), specific for hemidesmosomal proteins and usually associated with a subepidermal blistering skin disease, were detected by direct and indirect immunofluorescence studies and by Western immunoblot. A diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis was made, based on evidence of chronic active hepatitis and circulating anti-smooth muscle antibody. Immunosuppressive treatments induced partial clinical remission of the diarrhea but no resolution of the small bowel injury. At 16 months of age, remission of the diarrhea occurred, but persistent autoimmune hepatitis led us to maintain treatment with prednisone and azathioprine, and later with cyclosporine. In this child, as in other patients with autoimmune disease, the link between autoantibodies and organ damage remains uncertain but immunosuppressive treatment is indicated.
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keywords = enterocytes
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5/5. Iatrogenic isolated isoleucine deficiency as the cause of an acrodermatitis enteropathica-like syndrome.

    We present two patients with a suspected inborn error of metabolism. A female newborn presented with dysmorphic features and convulsions. Metabolic screening suggested a defect in isoleucine degradation. Within 2 weeks after the introduction of an isoleucine-restricted diet, she developed a severe acrodermatitis enteropathica-like syndrome. The plasma level of isoleucine was low with a normal leucine/isoleucine ratio. The second patient, a female infant deficient in leucine as a result of a leucine-restricted diet, did not develop a dermatosis. isoleucine is essential for normal growth and differentiation of keratinocytes and enterocytes. Deficiency of isoleucine, and not leucine or an imbalance in the leucine/isoleucine ratio, may result in an acrodermatitis enteropathica-like syndrome.
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