Cases reported "Diarrhea"

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1/27. Amatoxin poisoning from ingestion of Japanese Galerina mushrooms.

    BACKGROUND: Although some Japanese Galerina species poisonings manifest as gastrointestinal symptoms followed by late-onset hepatorenal failure (phalloides syndrome), the toxin responsible for this has not been determined. CASE REPORT: We report a 6-year-old boy who developed characteristic cholera-like diarrhea and late-onset severe hepatic deterioration after eating mushrooms, later identified as a Galerina species, most likely Galerina fasciculata. A residual mushroom revealed alpha-amanitin. This account is the first known reported case of poisoning by Japanese Galerina species where an amatoxin was demonstrated to be responsible for the toxicity.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cholera
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2/27. Three cases of bacteremia caused by vibrio cholerae o1 in Blantyre, malawi.

    We report three fatal cases of bacteremia (two adults, one neonate) caused by vibrio cholerae o1 (Ogawa), which occurred in the context of a community outbreak of cholera diarrhea in Blantyre, malawi. Only four cases of invasive disease caused by V. cholerae O1 have previously been reported. We describe the clinical features associated with these rare cases and discuss their significance.
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ranking = 7
keywords = cholera
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3/27. Acute secretory travellers' diarrhoea caused by Vibrio cholerae non-01 which does not produce cholera-like or heat-stable enterotoxins.

    An Australian tourist suffering from severe acute watery diarrhoea and dehydration due to Vibrio cholerae non-01 was studied. The V. cholerae strain isolated from the patient belonged to serovar 05. The organism did not produce any of the conventional enterotoxins including cholera-toxin (CT) or heat-stable toxins (NAG-ST) that are known to be associated with intestinal secretion. This report suggests that toxin(s) other than CT-like or NAG-ST may be involved in the pathogenesis of diarrhoea by some V. cholerae non-01 strains.
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ranking = 12
keywords = cholera
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4/27. Cholera control on guam, 2000.

    During April, 2000, the island of Pohnpei began experiencing an outbreak of cholera and during June and July of the same year four cases of cholera representing 3 separate introduction events were identified on guam. Two of these events were associated with eating reef fish imported from Pohnpei. Following the imposition of a narrowly-focused ban on the importation of inshore seafood and processed food products from Pohnpei, no additional local or imported cases of cholera were detected on guam.
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ranking = 3
keywords = cholera
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5/27. Mixed diarrhoeal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae and several other enteric pathogens in a 4-year-old child returning to germany from pakistan.

    We report a mixed enteric infection in a 4-y-old child who returned from pakistan with fever, vomiting and profuse diarrhoea leading to severe dehydration. Vibrio cholerae O1, salmonella paratyphi a and campylobacter coli were cultured from stool. Furthermore, giardia lamblia antigen and hepatitis a rna were detected. This is the first paediatric cholera case seen in Frankfurt/Main.
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ranking = 6
keywords = cholera
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6/27. Cholera-like presentation in Vibrio fluvialis enteritis.

    We describe a patient who presented with cholera-like diarrhea seven days after eating shellfish at a seafood buffet on the Gulf Coast. The patient's stool culture grew only Vibrio fluvialis on TCBS agar, and his diarrhea and profound acidosis completely resolved within 24 hours of initiating antibiotics. To our knowledge, a detailed case of V fluvialis diarrhea with cholera-like symptoms has not been reported.
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ranking = 2
keywords = cholera
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7/27. Islet cell carcinoma, pancreatic cholera, and vasoactive intestinal peptide.

    Three patients with profuse diarrhea, hypokalemia, metastatic nonbeta islet cell carcinoma, and the absence of gastric hypersecretion were found to have elevated levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide. One patient also had elevated serum gastrin levels. Two patients experienced prolonged remissions of diarrhea after operations in which only tumor biopsies were done. These cases further implicate vasoactive intestinal peptide as the agent mediating the diarrhea in the syndrome of pancreatic cholera.
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ranking = 5
keywords = cholera
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8/27. A case of watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and hypercalcemia associated with nonulcerogenic islet cell tumor of the pancreas.

    A case of watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and hypercalcemia associated with an islet cell tumor was described. A 62-year old man exhibited frequent watery diarrhea and hypokalemia for two years. He had no peptic ulcer and serum gastrin level was normal. His serum calcium was abnormally high and serum phosphate was lowered. He had secretin-like activity in his plasma. autopsy revealed a small islet cell tumor in the pancreas and several metastatic masses in the liver. Microscopic examination revealed the tumor cell was not beta, alpha nor D cells. By electron microscopy the secretion granules of the tumor cell resembled those of S, M and T cells. It was not possible to decide which of the tree cell types was responsible for the pancreatic cholera.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cholera
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9/27. Watery diarrhea syndrome. Two unusual cases and further evidence that VIP is a humoral mediator.

    Two unusual cases of the watery diarrhea syndrome are presented. In one patient an adrenal medullary tumor, a pheochromocytoma that produced vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) was excised with total relief of symptoms. The second patient a 65-year-old man with abrupt onset of massive watery diarrhea that led to acidosis and coma was symptomatically controlled for one year on 10 mg/day of prednisone. Elevated levels of VIP returned to normal after prednisone therapy was started. A benign islet cell tumor not localized by angiography was removed by distal pancreatic resection. Tissue levels of VIP were markedly elevated. VIP is a humoral mediator of the water diarrhea syndrome. Both benign and malignant pancreatic and extrapancreatic tumors may cause the watery diarrhea syndrome. steroids may cause symptomatic relief of the diarrhea by lowering peptide levels to normal. The term watery diarrhea syndrome may be more accurate than the pancreatic cholera syndrome.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cholera
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10/27. Hormone-mediated watery diarrhea in a family with multiple endocrine neoplasms.

    A father and son each presented with severe watery diarrhea. The son was found to have a pancreatic islet-cell tumor associated with the pancreatic cholera syndrome, as well as a parathyroid adenoma. The father was found to have multiple islet-cell adenomas and the zollinger-ellison syndrome. Pancreatic tumor tissue from each patient contained detectable gastrin and vasoactive intestinal peptide; however, a much higher gastrin concentration was found in the tumor tissue from the father and a much higher vasoactive intestinal peptide content in the tumor tissue from the son. Thus, watery diarrhea may be mediated by different hormones in families having multiple endocrine neoplasia; the precise cause of the diarrheal syndrome should be defined to ensure the proper therapy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cholera
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