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1/37. Balo's concentric sclerosis: value of magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis.

    We report two cases of Balo's concentric sclerosis that demonstrate the typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of concentric rings of demyelination involving the superficial and deep white matter and sparing the cortex. In both cases biopsy was not performed as MRI findings and multi-mode evoked potential studies were consistent with demyelinating illness. The theories regarding the pathogenesis of this peculiar appearance are briefly reviewed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cortex
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2/37. MR spectroscopic findings in a case of Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome.

    Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome, considered a mitochondrial disease, combines encephalopathy and liver failure. An 11-year-old boy with Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome underwent conventional MR imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and proton MR spectroscopy. diffusion-weighted imaging showed cytotoxic edema interpreted as acute-phase encephalopathy. MR spectroscopy revealed a lactate peak in the cortex that appeared abnormal on diffusion-weighted images, possibly representing respiratory deficiency with anaerobic metabolism. MR spectroscopy proved to be more sensitive regarding lactate detection than did neurometabolic examination of serum and CSF. A reduced N-acetylaspartate-creatine ratio was detected in both the cortex that appeared abnormal and the cortex that appeared normal on the diffusion-weighted images, indicating neuronal damage that was widespread, even beyond the boundaries of conventional MR imaging changes.
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keywords = cortex
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3/37. Features of cell death in brain and liver, the target tissues of progressive neuronal degeneration of childhood with liver disease (Alpers-Huttenlocher disease).

    Alpers-Huttenlocher disease (AHD) is a rare encephalopathy of infancy and childhood characterized by myoclonic seizures and progressive neurological deterioration, usually associated with signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction. There is no biological marker of the disease, and ultimate diagnosis still relies on pathological examination. Features of clinical progression and pathological findings suggest AHD to be secondary to a genetically determined disorder of mitochondrial function. We report on four AHD patients and focus on their pathological features in brain, liver and muscle. Liver and muscle biopsy specimens were examined using histochemical markers of the oxidative pathways, probes to immunodetect molecules of the apoptotic cascades and electron microscopy. In liver (but not in muscle) biopsy samples, activated caspases were detected by immunohistochemistry: foci of caspase-9-positive cells were seen in a child affected with chronic, progressive fibrosis. In an 18-year-old boy, who suffered from valproic acid-associated acute hepatitis, caspase-3 cells were clustered among the necrotic foci and the foamy cells. In both patients electron microscopy revealed apoptotic nuclei. Normal muscle biopsy specimens were observed in two children, 2 and 8 years-old respectively; in the 18-year-old patient cytochrome oxidase-negative fibers as well as ultrastructural findings of mitochondrial abnormalities were observed. In no patient was there biochemical evidence of impaired oxidative metabolism. Neuropathological examination of the brains of two patients (13 months and 19 years old, respectively) showed focal distribution of the lesions affecting the telencephalic cortex and, to a lesser extent, subcortical gray nuclei. Along with the necrotizing lesions, characterized by neuronal loss, neuropil microcysts and newly formed vessels, we also observed acutely shrunken neurons and features of apoptotic cell death in the cerebral cortex only. Severe neuronal loss without necrotizing features was observed in the cerebellar cortex. The presence of both anoxic and apoptotic nuclei in brain and liver, the target tissues of the disease, is consistent with the hypothesis that abnormal activation of mitochondrion-related cell death pathways might be involved in the pathogenesis of AHD.
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ranking = 3
keywords = cortex
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4/37. Mitochondrial dna depletion in Alpers syndrome.

    Mitochondrial dysfunction of the energy generating system was suggested in two infants with progressive infantile poliodystrophy characterised by hypotonia, refractory epilepsy, visual impairment, psychomotor retardation, profound brain atrophy, hepatopathy, and increased levels of lactate in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Histochemical and electron microscopic analyses of liver biopsies revealed cytochrome c oxidase deficiency, microvesicular steatosis, and enormous multiplication of mitochondria of various sizes. In the first patient, the quantitative Southern blot analyses in tissues obtained at autopsy demonstrated reduced content of mtDNA in the liver, brain, and fibroblasts (11 %, 15 %, and 25 % of the mean values in controls) while a normal content of mtDNA was found in muscle and heart. In the second patient, a reduced content of mtDNA was found in the muscle, liver, and brain (15 %, 10 %, and 30 %, respectively, of the mean values in controls). Biochemical studies in the first patient revealed decreased activities of all respiratory chain complexes except complex II in isolated liver mitochondria and decreased amounts of respiratory chain complexes I, III, IV and ATP synthase in liver and frontal cortex, but not in muscle, heart, and fibroblasts. In conclusions, mtDNA depletion associated with Alpers syndrome may be tissue specific.
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keywords = cortex
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5/37. Anaesthetic considerations for the child with leukodystrophy.

    The author presents a four-year-old boy with pelizaeus-merzbacher disease who required anaesthesia during placement of PE (pressure equalization) tubes and a permanent silastic intravascular device (Broviac catheter). Pelizaeus-Merzbacher is one of a group of progressive, degenerative disorders of the cerebral white matter known as the leukodystrophies. They include metachromatic leukodystrophy, adrenoleukodystrophy, Krabbe's disease, Canavan's disease, Alexander's disease and pelizaeus-merzbacher disease. Due to the progressive nature of the disorders and their devastating effects on the central nervous system, these children frequently require anaesthesia during imaging procedures such as MRI or during various surgical procedures. Of concern to the anaesthetist is the high prevalence of seizure disorders, gastroesophageal reflux with the risk of aspiration, and airway complications related to poor pharyngeal muscle control and copious oral secretions. In addition, adrenal involvement and hypofunction may be seen in patients with adrenoleukodystrophy. Identification of these associated conditions during the preoperative examination will allow safe anaesthesia for these children.
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ranking = 0.96032976183157
keywords = adrenal
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6/37. canavan disease: neuromorphological and biochemical analysis of a brain biopsy specimen.

    In this study we present a patient with canavan disease or Van Bogaert and Bertrand type of spongiform leukodystrophy, proven by brain biopsy. We performed morphological studies and biochemical assays on fresh homogenates of the grey and white matter. Quantitative neuromorphological analysis of the cortex showed normal values except for poor dendritic arborization of the inner layers. No signs of neuronal damage were observed. The Na-K-ATPase activity was increased. Pyruvate and ketone bodies oxidation rates and the activity of cytochrome-c oxidase were normal. We conclude that there is neither a primary neuronal damage nor a primary mitochondrial dysfunction in the oxidative processes despite the abnormal morphology of mitochondria in this disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cortex
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7/37. adrenoleukodystrophy. Report of a case with extremely slow progression of symptoms.

    adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a sex-linked disorder characterized by very long chain fatty acid accumulation in different tissues, but mainly in the adrenal cortex, gonads and nervous system. The typical symptoms are hypoadrenalism, hypogonadism and central and peripheral nervous system impairment due to demyelination. On neurological grounds visual and hearing loss associated with quadriparesis are the most common symptoms, onset in childhood and a rapidly progressive course leading to a vegetative state and death. We report the case of a 31-year-old man affected by ALD, whose neurological symptoms started at the age of 12 and showed a markedly slow progression during the following years.
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ranking = 318.74549093049
keywords = adrenal cortex, cortex, adrenal
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8/37. adrenoleukodystrophy: heterogeneity in two brothers.

    A man with hypoadrenalism died from a rapidly progressive pseudobulbar palsy, due to adult onset adrenoleukodystrophy. This diagnosis suggested that his brother, with a longstanding spastic paraparesis, suffered from adrenomyeloneuropathy. Both cases were confirmed biochemically. The heterogeneity of expression of this x-linked disorder is described, with the consequent difficulty in diagnosis and nomenclature.
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ranking = 0.96032976183157
keywords = adrenal
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9/37. Large molecular weight ACTH immunoactivity in a patient with adrenoleukomyeloneuropathy.

    Very high ACTH immunoactivity was measured in a patient with adrenoleukomyeloneuropathy. The basal adrenocortical function was hyperactive, whereas the response to exogenous ACTH was depressed. Most of the ACTH immunoactivity was a large molecule (55,000 daltons), which weakly stimulated steroidogenesis of adrenocortical cells in vitro, but inhibited the binding of 125I-iodoACTH to the cells and suppressed ACTH-induced steroid production. Abnormalities in the pituitary-adrenal axis in adrenoleukomyeloneuropathy have been considered to be solely attributable to destruction of the adrenal cortex. In the current case, however, large molecular weight ACTH immunoactivity is present and might have some role in the adrenocortical dysfunction.
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ranking = 318.74549093049
keywords = adrenal cortex, cortex, adrenal
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10/37. A case of Alzheimer's disease and hippocampal sclerosis with normal cholinergic activity in basal forebrain, neocortex, and hippocampus.

    A 76-year-old man without apparent dementia met pathologic criteria at autopsy for Alzheimer's disease, which included a maximum senile plaque density greater than 15 per square millimeter of neocortex. Despite hippocampal sclerosis, changes typical of Alzheimer's disease were not found in this region or in basal forebrain. choline acetyltransferase activity in hippocampus, septum, and parietal cortex was normal.
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ranking = 6
keywords = cortex
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