Cases reported "Digestive System Diseases"

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1/3. Management and long-term follow-up of patients with types III and IV laryngotracheoesophageal clefts.

    BACKGROUND: Laryngotracheoesophageal cleft (LTEC) is a rare congenital anomaly that occurs when the trachea and esophagus fail to separate during fetal development. The 2 most severe forms of LTEC are type III, with extension of the cleft from the larynx to the carina, and type IV, with extension of the cleft into one or both mainstem bronchi. methods: Over the past 25 years, we have accumulated an experience caring for 9 patients with severe LTEC, including 4 with type III and 5 with type IV. RESULTS: morbidity and mortality from severe LTEC often result from aspiration and chronic lung disease. patients with types III (1/4) and IV (5/5) LTEC have an extremely high incidence of microgastria with a shortened esophagus for which fundoplication is ineffective. Because gastric feeding often does not initially increase stomach volume and may cause severe aspiration, we suggest early gastric division with later reconstruction of intestinal continuity in patients with microgastria. Postoperative tracheoesophageal fistulas have occurred in 6 of 9 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Generous interposition of vascularized tissue with a multiple-layer closure has helped to prevent further recurrences. Postoperative tracheomalacia may be managed with continuous positive airway pressure and may require customized endotracheal tubes. Evaluation of respiratory and digestive function, school performance, and quality of life for the surviving patients is described.
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2/3. Studies on the causes of deaths from esophageal carcinoma.

    statistics on the causes for deaths of 638 patients operated on in our department for resection of cancer of the intrathoracic esophagus (squamous cell carcinoma) during the period from 1959-1979 showed that the major causes for direct operative deaths were pyothorax, pulmonary complications, failure of the sutures, and postoperative hemorrhage. Among operation survivors, recurrence was the most frequent cause of death, responsible for the deaths of as many as 80% of less-than-five year survivors; and recurrence in the cervical, supraclavicular fossa, and superior mediastinal lymph nodes and that in the other organs were the frequent causes for the deaths of two- to three-year survivors. Pulmonary complications were the causes for the deaths of 50%, and recurrence for the deaths of 30% of five- to ten-year survivors. recurrence in the digestive organs other than the esophagus and cardiovascular diseases were the frequent causes for the deaths of more-than ten-year survivors, while none of these survivors died of recurrence.
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keywords = esophagus
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3/3. Morphodynamics and pathology of blood vessels III--comparative morphologic study of contraction of smooth muscle cells of hollow viscera and its application to vasoconstriction and vasospasm.

    The morphologic changes in the walls of hollow viscera caused by contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle cells were studied from autopsy and surgical specimens. The specimens studied included: esophageal spasm (corkscrew and nutcracker esophagus), contraction of the lower esophageal sphincter with marked esophageal dilatation, gaseous distension of the stomach, contraction of the gastric pylorus, bladder and anal sphincter, physiological segmental constriction of the small and large intestines, constriction and distension of the gallbladder, urinary bladder and bronchi, and postpartum contraction of the uterus. In contrast to distension, the constriction of hollow viscera shows marked reduction of the external circumference and diameter with thickening of the wall, contraction of smooth muscle cells, thickening of muscle bundles, remodeling of wall structure, and narrowing or obliteration of the lumen. Morphologic evidence of contraction of smooth muscle cells is demonstrated by varying degrees of typical lengthwise shortening of the cells and squeezing and folding of the nuclei depending on the degree of cytoplasmic contraction of the smooth muscle cells. Using these same classic morphologic signs, we have attempted to study constriction and distension of arteries and arterioles. We can demonstrate contraction of smooth muscle cells and remodeling of arterial and arteriolar walls in patients with spastic coronary artery thrombosis, cocaine-induced coronary artery thrombosis, acute constriction of mesenteric arteries with lacerations of arterial wall, and dissecting hemorrhages induced by large doses of intravenous infusion of vasoconstrictors for hemorrhagic shock, and in patients with sustained, accelerated, or malignant hypertension.
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