Cases reported "Digestive System Diseases"

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1/25. Gastrointestinal manifestations of Behcet's disease.

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a multisystem, chronic, relapsing vasculitis of unknown origin that affects nearly all organs and systems. While recurrent oral ulcerations are a "sine qua non" of BD, the frequency of extra-oral parts of the gastrointestinal involvement varies widely in different countries. The most frequent extra-oral sites of gastrointestinal involvement are the ileocecal region and the colon. The liver (except with budd-chiari syndrome), pancreas, and spleen are rarely involved. The symptoms associated with these extra-oral manifestations of BD are abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea with or without blood, and constipation. The lesions typically are resistant to medical treatment and frequently recur with surgical treatment. We review the literature regarding the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary systems in BD. Also, we present a patient who had BD complicated with radiologically-proven hepatic veins involvement (budd-chiari syndrome) and complete occlusion of hepatic portion of inferior vena cava and who had a good response to colchicine and penicillin treatment. ( info)

2/25. Sigmoid endometriosis and ovarian stimulation.

    In-vitro fertilization (IVF) and ovarian stimulation are frequently performed in patients with endometriosis. Although endometriosis is a hormone-dependent disease, the rate of IVF complications related to endometriosis is low. We report four cases of severe digestive complications due to the rapid growth of sigmoid endometriosis under ovarian stimulation. In three patients, sigmoid endometriosis was diagnosed at laparoscopy for sterility. Because of the absence of digestive symptoms or repercussion on the bowel, no bowel resection was performed before ovarian stimulation. All patients experienced severe digestive symptoms during ovarian stimulation, and a segmental sigmoid resection had to be performed. Analysis of endoscopic and radiological data demonstrated that bowel lesions of small size may rapidly enlarge and become highly symptomatic under ovarian stimulation. At immunohistochemistry, these infiltrating lesions displayed high populations of steroid receptors and a high proliferative index (Ki-67 activity), suggesting a strong dependence on circulating ovarian hormones and a potential for rapid growth under supraphysiological oestrogen concentrations. Clinicians should be aware of this rare but severe digestive complication of ovarian stimulation. The early diagnosis of such lesions may help the patients to avoid months of morbidity falsely attributed to ovarian stimulation side effects. Further experience is necessary to determine the optimal attitude when diagnosing a small and asymptomatic endometriotic bowel lesion before ovarian stimulation. ( info)

3/25. High-flow arterioportal fistula: treatment with detachable balloon occlusion.

    Transarterial embolization is one of the treatment choices for symptomatic hepatic arterioportal fistula that has low mortality and morbidity. Proper selection of the technique and embolic material is very important for the success of the procedure. We present a case with high-flow arterioportal fistula treated with transarterial embolization using detachable balloons. ( info)

4/25. Effective treatment of rumination with Nissen fundoplication.

    Rumination is a syndrome characterized by the effortless regurgitation of recently ingested food. It has been linked to severe medical and psychosocial conditions including malnutrition, aspiration pneumonia, and complete social withdrawal. psychotherapy, the current treatment modality for rumination, may improve symptoms but requires significant motivation and is rarely curative. We hypothesized that a complete fundoplication would eliminate, or at least impair, the ability to regurgitate gastric contents through the esophagogastric junction. We performed a Nissen fundoplication in five patients with a classic history of rumination. In all cases, symptoms had been resistant to medical and psychiatric intervention prior to fundoplication. Formal preoperative testing included esophageal manometry, 24-hour pH monitoring, endoscopy, and upper gastrointestinal barium swallow studies. All patients reported their primary symptom to be effortless recurrent postprandial regurgitation for 1 to 2 hours after meals consistent with rumination. Four (80%) of the five patients had low resting lower esophageal sphincter pressures with evidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease on 24-hour pH monitoring. All patients reported complete cessation of ruminating behavior after Nissen fundoplication. We report, for the first time, complete elimination of rumination symptoms after a Nissen fundoplication. Although further trials are needed to confirm our results, we recommend considering a Nissen fundoplication for treatment of rumination refractory to behavioral and medical interventions. ( info)

5/25. Angioneurotic edemas of the upper aerodigestive tract after ACE-inhibitor treatment.

    There are rare cases in which inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme can cause an angioneurotic edema of the upper aerodigestive tract. The pathomechanism of this side effect depends on an interaction of the drug with hormones regulating vascular permeability, such as the kallikrein kinin system and the prostaglandin system. angioedema is characterized by subcutaneous or submucosal swellings, which usually affect the lips, soft palate, tongue and larynx. Pathomechanisms, differential diagnosis and treatment of ACE-inhibitor-induced edema of the upper aerodigestive tract are described in three case reports. ( info)

6/25. Chronic pancreatitis and maldigestion.

    patients with chronic pancreatitis may suffer from maldigestion and malnutrition. Longstanding inflammation and fibrosis in the gland can destroy exocrine tissue, leading to inadequate delivery of digestive enzymes to the duodenum in the prandial and postprandial period and subsequent maldigestion. Maldigestion is augmented by inadequate bicarbonate delivery to the duodenum, with secondary inactivation of enzymes and bile acids by gastric acid. abdominal pain, sitophobia, nausea, vomiting, postprandial satiety, and on-going alcohol abuse may contribute to poor oral intake. Gastric dysmotility and mechanical gastric outlet obstruction from fibrosis in the pancreatic head may contribute to malnutrition and clinical decline. patients with chronic pancreatitis may at times experience profound steatorrhea and weight loss. In this article, we examine the natural history of exocrine insufficiency in chronic pancreatitis, outline the important nutritional issues in these patients, review the methods of diagnosis of maldigestion, and discuss the approach to therapy. ( info)

7/25. Annular pancreas in the adult: two case reports and review of more than a century of literature.

    This paper brings the diagnosis and treatment of this interesting yet infrequent condition to contemporary standards through an assessment of past literature and a re-evaluation of the problem in view of technological advances. Two cases of annular pancreas are cited with a review of the last 183 years of literature. Only 100 cases, however, were reported in enough detail to examine outcomes in general and to arrive at a reasonable conclusion in terms of recommendations for diagnosis and operative intervention in adult annular pancreas. Two observations are brought to light. Despite all present diagnostic tools including endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography diagnosis at best is made in only 60 per cent of patients preoperatively. Intraoperative expertise remains the best diagnostic modality available to date. Enteroenterostomy seems to be the intervention of choice for a multitude of anatomic and physiologic reasons and with a wide array of surgical options available when additional factors need to be addressed. ( info)

8/25. gastrostomy tube insertion into intestinal-cutaneous tract fistulas is a new technique to improve fistula control.

    BACKGROUND: The management of gastrointestinal-cutaneous fistulas may be complicated by the difficulty in obtaining adequate control of the fistula tract. This study describes a new method to obtain better fistula control utilizing a semi-rigid stent in the form of a gastrostomy tube. methods: Consecutive patients with intestinal-cutaneous fistulas of at least 3 weeks duration and treated by the new technique were analyzed. The technique involved the insertion of a guide wire into the fistula tract from the luminal side using an endoscope, snaring the wire with a Dormia basket inserted into the fistula tract from the cutaneous side and then exteriorized. The gastrostomy tube was then pulled with the guide wire from the lumen along the fistula tract and out through the skin. RESULTS: Five patients had had fistulas for a median duration of 42 (range 26-140) days before insertion of the gastrostomy tube. The gastrostomy tube was replaced with a smaller diameter tube in 4 of the patients (range 1-3 changes). The patients were discharged from the hospital at a median of 14 (range 12-23) days after the tube insertion but with the tube in situ. The median time from the insertion of the tube to its removal was 42 (range 32-108) days. CONCLUSIONS: gastrostomy tube insertion using minimally invasive techniques may improve fistula control enabling patients to be discharged home sooner than otherwise and improve the rate of healing. ( info)

9/25. Aerodigestive amyloidosis presenting as acute asthma.

    Aerodigestive amyloidosis is a rare disorder characterized by fibrillar protein deposition in the aerodigestive tree. We present a case of a 19-year-old Chinese gentleman whose diagnosis was initially missed as he presented with features suggestive of severe bronchial asthma and was intubated and ventilated. He subsequently presented 2 years later with severe stridor and required emergency tracheostomy. Current literature is reviewed for the histopathology, common clinical features, radiological findings and treatment options for aerodigestive amyloidosis. ( info)

10/25. Extraperitoneal endometriosis with catamenial pneumothoraces: a review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE: To present a case of recurrent catamenial pneumothorax and diaphragmatic endometriosis that was managed thoracoscopically. A review of the literature is also presented. methods: A-28-year-old woman presented with bloody stools, chronic constipation, and chest pain. A review of systems was positive for monthly chest pain associated with her menses. A preoperative chest x-ray revealed a right pneumothorax. colonoscopy revealed biopsy proven endometriosis of the sigmoid colon. A pelvic computed tomography scan revealed bilateral complex, cystic and solid adenexal lesions. RESULTS: A right thoracoscopy was performed. A lesion on the right hemidiaphragm was excised and confirmed to be endometriosis. A wedge section of lung tissue containing a bleb was resected and also contained endometriosis. Three months later, the patient underwent laparoscopic excision of her pelvic endometriosis, including a low anterior rectal resection. Five months later, she presented again with right-sided chest pain. A thoracoscopic right total pleurectomy was performed for recurrent pneumothorax. CONCLUSION: Pullmonary endometriosis may present as chest pain, shortness of breath, or hemoptysis associated with menstrual cycles. This case emphasizes the importance of a careful review of systems in patients with known endometriosis. Management now includes an endoscopic alternative and all of its known benefits. ( info)
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