Cases reported "Dilatation, Pathologic"

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1/136. Delayed onset keratectasia following laser in situ keratomileusis.

    We present a case of unilateral iatrogenic keratectasia developing 10 months after bilateral laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) involving enhancement surgery using a broad-beam excimer laser (Summit Apex) to treat 6.6 diopters (D) of myopia. The ectasia progressed rapidly over the subsequent 12 months. The surgeon did not measure preoperative pachymetry, but preoperative topography and corneal measurements did not reveal underlying keratoconus or forme fruste keratoconus. corneal transplantation was required for final visual rehabilitation. light microscopy of the button revealed no underlying inflammation, which suggests biomechanical corneal weakening as the cause of the ectasia. Scanning electron microscopy showed the dramatic thinning seen clinically. latrogenic keratectasia appears to be a possible complication of LASIK.
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2/136. Successful treatment of tracheomalacia associated with esophageal atresia without a tracheoesophageal fistula by aortopexy: report of a case.

    tracheomalacia (TM) is well known as a complication associated with esophageal atresia (EA) and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF); however, the occurrence of TM requiring surgical treatment in a patient having EA without a tracheoesophageal fistula has never been reported. We describe herein a rare case of TM associated with EA without TEF. Respiratory distress was caused by compression of the trachea by a severely dilated upper esophageal pouch with weakness of the tracheal wall. Aortopexy was performed, and an excellent postoperative result was achieved.
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3/136. Undiagnosed Mirizzi's syndrome: a word of caution for laparoscopic surgeons--a report of three cases and review of the literature.

    The mirizzi syndrome is often undiagnosed before surgery and can carry a high risk of iatrogenic damage to the common bile duct when encountered during open or, especially, laparoscopic surgery. Endoscopic management has recently been reported, but this treatment can be performed only when there is a high index of suspicion based on clinical criteria that the condition is present and therefore suggests the indication for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This is not always the case. Consequently, in a considerable percentage of patients, the syndrome is discovered only after the bile ducts have been damaged during surgery. Three cases of Mirizzi's syndrome were observed in our experience of 896 laparoscopic cholecystectomies (0.3%). All patients were without typical symptoms, and the syndrome was unsuspected in spite of preoperative intravenous cholangiography. All patients required conversion to an open procedure, with two injuries of the common bile duct (a complete transection and a tear) being promptly repaired. We conclude that when this syndrome is suspected or found during surgery, the surgeon should follow these guidelines: (1) perform intraoperative cholangiography when possible, even through the gallbladder wall; and (2) dissect the gallbladder from above and, if necessary, open it to extract the stone. dissection of Calot's triangle should never be attempted. Great expertise is required to complete the operation laparoscopically. The reported cases in the literature refer to a high percentage of conversion, underlining the technical difficulties and making this syndrome, when undiagnosed and unsuspected, a real challenge for laparoscopic surgeons.
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4/136. Distensible venous malformations of the orbit: clinical and hemodynamic features and a new technique of management.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate distensible venous malformations of the orbit (DVMO) as part of a spectrum of orbital vascular malformations, including some that involved periorbital skin, extraorbital sites (central nervous system or nasal sinuses), or combinations of these. The authors also investigated the effectiveness of a new technique of management for selected cases. DESIGN: Retrospective noncomparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty patients had distensible venous anomalies, of which four were combined distensible venous-lymphatic vascular malformations. Distensible lesions were defined as those showing clinical or radiographic expansion with valsalva maneuver or when the head was placed in a dependent position. These lesions were then classified as superficial (anterior to the equator of the globe), deep (posterior to the globe's equator), combined (deep and superficial), or complex (with intracranial or major extraorbital involvement). INTERVENTION: Surgery was performed on 15 patients (50%), mainly for pain or for cosmetic indications. Six patients underwent this new technique, which involved intraoperative direct venography with control of outflow via pressure at the superior or inferior orbital fissure. The venous malformation was then embolized (by use of cyanoacrylate glue) and excised. RESULTS: The mean age at presentation was 28.2 years (range, 8 months to 75 years). Sixty-six percent of cases involved the left orbit. Superior and medial orbital involvement was most common. Three cases (10%) were classified as superficial, and 13 (43%) as deep. Six patients (20%) had combined superficial and deep components. Eight (27%) had major extraorbital involvement (4 intracranial, 2 facial, and 2 paranasal sinus). Direct venography demonstrated complex multichannel anomalies draining to various sites, including the face and pterygopalatine fossa, without necessarily having a direct connection to the major orbital venous circulation. CONCLUSIONS: Distensible venous malformations of the orbit are part of a spectrum of developmental venous malformations that may be localized to the orbit or involve it as part of a more extensive lesion. The authors describe their clinical and radiologic features and report a new technique of management for selected cases. This method of vascular isolation and embolization of lesions may greatly facilitate excision.
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5/136. A single-stage operation for bicuspid aortic valve, annulo-aortic ectasia, hypoplastic aortic arch, and coarctation of the aorta: A case report.

    The patient was an 18-year-old man who had been diagnosed as having a bicuspid aortic valve and dilatation of the ascending aorta six years previously. As he grew up, aneurysmal change of the ascending aorta and hypertension in the upper body gradually progressed. Preoperative evaluation showed annulo-aortic ectasia and the following congenital abnormalities: bicuspid aortic valve, hypoplastic aortic arch, and coarctation of the aorta. Composite graft replacement and extended total aortic arch replacement were carried out.
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6/136. Isolated tricuspid valve regurgitation resulting from severe annular dilatation: case report.

    A rare case of isolated tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in a 65-year-old man is presented. echocardiography revealed enlargement of the right atrium, dilatation of the tricuspid valve annulus without thickening or prolapse of the leaflets, and an intact atrial septum. No downward displacement of the tricuspid septal leaflet was observed by echocardiography. Mild mitral regurgitation and severe TR were detected on color flow Doppler studies. cardiac catheterization indicated elevated right atrial pressure, with a pronounced V-wave. No left-to-right shunt was detected at the right atrium. At surgery, severe annular dilatation of the tricuspid valve (without organically diseased or deformed tricuspid leaflets) was observed, and tricuspid annuloplasty with a prosthetic ring performed. Postoperative echocardiography and right ventriculography showed trivial TR.
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7/136. Giant liposarcoma of the esophagus: radiological findings.

    This case of an esophageal liposarcoma illustrates a polypoid lesion within the esophagus that extended from the left pyriform sinus to the distal esophagus above the gastric cardia. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an inhomogenously-enhancing intraluminal mass, while video-fluoroscopy revealed that the mass was adherent to the esophageal wall and was associated with esophageal dilatation and diminished peristalsis. This ninth reported case of esophageal liposarcoma is the first described where preoperative radiologic studies and endoscopy showed broad fixation of the tumor to the esophageal wall.
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8/136. Simultaneous repair of cardiovascular disorders and pectus deformity in a patient with Sprintzen-Goldberg syndrome: A case report.

    We report a 12-year-old girl with Sprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS) who was complicated with annuloaortic ectasia with aortic regurgitation, mitral valve prolapse with mitral regurgitation, and a severe pectus excavatum. In this patient, aortic root replacement, mitral valve replacement, and sternal elevation were simultaneously performed, and a version of Ravitch's procedure that was technically modified to support the sternum was used for sternal elevation. This modified sternal elevation technique gave excellent operative exposure, and maintained chest wall stability after the operation.
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9/136. Corneal ectasia detected after laser in situ keratomileusis for correction of less than -12 diopters of myopia.

    We report 2 cases of corneal ectasia detected after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for the correction of less than -12.0 diopters (D) of myopia. patients were evaluated before and after LASIK by corneal topography and pachymetry. After treatment, visual acuity temporarily improved but was followed by visual impairment, with corneal ectasia detected by topography. There may be a risk of corneal ectasia after LASIK in cases of myopia of less than -12.0 D. Despite thelow incidence, we recommend that LASIK be restricted to cases in which more than half the original corneal thickness and more than 250 microns of the stromal bed can be preserved. Careful examination, including preoperative serial topographic evaluation and measurement of posterior stromal thickness, should be performed to improve the quality and predictability of corneal refractive surgery.
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10/136. Synchronous carcinoma of the gallbladder in a patient with intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma.

    An 83-year-old woman, diagnosed as having cholelithiasis, was admitted to the Department of Surgery, Nippon Medical School, with right hypochondrial pain. ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a mass in the gallbladder fundus and a hypovascular tumor in the anterior segment of the liver. magnetic resonance imaging showed stenosis of the intrahepatic bile duct and dilatation of its proximal portion. She was diagnosed as having intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma combined with gallbladder carcinoma. At laparotomy, there was evidence of multiple peritoneal metastases and intraoperative histological examination of the gallbladder tumor revealed adenocarcinoma. Accordingly, only cholecystectomy and needle biopsy of the liver tumor was performed. Histological examination of the gallbladder revealed papillary adenocarcinoma invading the muscularis propria with medullary growth or intermediate stroma. There was no microvessel invasion, no perineural invasion and no lymph node involvement. On the other hand, the liver tumor was a cholangiocarcinoma with a well-differentiated tubular pattern. Therefore, this was a rare case of synchronous carcinoma of the gallbladder associated with intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma.
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