Cases reported "Dilatation, Pathologic"

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1/100. Complex right hemisphere developmental venous anomaly associated with multiple facial hemangiomas. Case report.

    Complex developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) represent variations of normal cerebral venous drainage and consist of dilation of the superficial and/or deep venous system. These rare anomalies can occur unilaterally or bilaterally, supratentorially or infratentorially, focally or they can affect the entire hemisphere. Some DVAs are associated with cervicofacial venous malformations or facial lymphatic malformations. Anomalies of this type are generally clinically silent, and cerebral dysfunction is usually absent. Symptoms, when they occur, are most commonly headache or mild seizure disorders. The angiographic findings are striking, with well-formed but enlarged transcerebral medullary and deep and/or superficial cortical veins. Opacification of these venous structures occurs within the same time frame as a normal angiographic venous phase. The authors report the case of a 33-year-old man in whom a large inoperable arteriovenous malformation had been previously diagnosed and who presented with seizures. Repeated magnetic resonance imaging and angiography demonstrated abnormally dilated transcerebral, superficial, and deep venous structures involving the entire right hemisphere with no identifiable nidus. Additionally, multiple bilateral benign facial hemangiomas were present in this patient. It is important to recognize this rare venous appearance as a developmental variant and not mistake it for an arteriovenous malformation or a partially thrombosed vein of Galen malformation. Because these venous anomalies are extreme variants of the normal venous system, hemorrhage rarely, if ever, occurs and the patient can be reassured that no interventional or surgical therapy is necessary or warranted.
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ranking = 1
keywords = vein, deep
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2/100. Distensible venous malformations of the orbit: clinical and hemodynamic features and a new technique of management.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate distensible venous malformations of the orbit (DVMO) as part of a spectrum of orbital vascular malformations, including some that involved periorbital skin, extraorbital sites (central nervous system or nasal sinuses), or combinations of these. The authors also investigated the effectiveness of a new technique of management for selected cases. DESIGN: Retrospective noncomparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty patients had distensible venous anomalies, of which four were combined distensible venous-lymphatic vascular malformations. Distensible lesions were defined as those showing clinical or radiographic expansion with valsalva maneuver or when the head was placed in a dependent position. These lesions were then classified as superficial (anterior to the equator of the globe), deep (posterior to the globe's equator), combined (deep and superficial), or complex (with intracranial or major extraorbital involvement). INTERVENTION: Surgery was performed on 15 patients (50%), mainly for pain or for cosmetic indications. Six patients underwent this new technique, which involved intraoperative direct venography with control of outflow via pressure at the superior or inferior orbital fissure. The venous malformation was then embolized (by use of cyanoacrylate glue) and excised. RESULTS: The mean age at presentation was 28.2 years (range, 8 months to 75 years). Sixty-six percent of cases involved the left orbit. Superior and medial orbital involvement was most common. Three cases (10%) were classified as superficial, and 13 (43%) as deep. Six patients (20%) had combined superficial and deep components. Eight (27%) had major extraorbital involvement (4 intracranial, 2 facial, and 2 paranasal sinus). Direct venography demonstrated complex multichannel anomalies draining to various sites, including the face and pterygopalatine fossa, without necessarily having a direct connection to the major orbital venous circulation. CONCLUSIONS: Distensible venous malformations of the orbit are part of a spectrum of developmental venous malformations that may be localized to the orbit or involve it as part of a more extensive lesion. The authors describe their clinical and radiologic features and report a new technique of management for selected cases. This method of vascular isolation and embolization of lesions may greatly facilitate excision.
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ranking = 0.039830231309922
keywords = deep
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3/100. Trousseau's syndrome with brachiocephalic vein thrombosis in a patient with uterine carcinosarcoma. A case report.

    The authors treated a patient with the previously unreported occurrence of brachiocephalic vein and superior vena cava thrombosis in association with a distantly located cancer. A 71-year-old woman presented with swelling over the right side of the neck and abdominal distension. physical examination revealed a huge mass, and computed tomography demonstrated thrombosis of the brachiocephalic vein and superior vena cava accompanied by jugular vein dilatation. No coagulation disorder was demonstrable. After anticoagulation and thrombolysis, hysterectomy was performed; microscopic examination of the specimen revealed uterine carcinosarcoma. Even though local tumor obstruction is a much more common cause of neck vein thrombosis, a distant occult cancer can present as this form of Trousseau's syndrome. In patients with otherwise unexplained neck vein thrombosis, examination not only of the head and neck but also of the abdomen and pelvis should be pursued.
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ranking = 10.489470970754
keywords = thrombosis, vein, vein thrombosis
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4/100. Right iliac vein agenesis, varicosities, and widespread hemangiomas: report of a rare case.

    We present a probable variant of the Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome with the clinical features of capillary hemangiomas, varicosities, and agenesis of the right iliac venous system, but without limb hypertrophy. To our knowledge, this is the 1st such case reported in the medical literature.
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ranking = 1.9402546530351
keywords = vein
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5/100. Congenital dilation of the cervical epidural venous plexus: neuroradiology and endovenous management.

    We report a case of a 15-year-old girl suffering from cervicobrachialgia who was admitted to our service due to an enlarged neural foramen suspicious for a neurinoma. The cervical phlebography, however, revealed a space-occupying dilated epidural vein with increased blood supply from the suboccipital venous plexus. Lesions like this are absolutely rare, presumably of congenital origin and have not been described before. The lesion was treated by feeder occlusion applying platinum coils and enbucrilate via the internal jugular vein.
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ranking = 0.97012732651756
keywords = vein
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6/100. Internal jugular phlebectasia--an unusual cause of neck swelling.

    We describe a 7-year-old child who presented with a soft fluctuant swelling on the neck which became more prominent during the Valsalva manoeuvre. He underwent adeno-tonsillectomy based on a mistaken diagnosis of ballooning of the pharynx secondary to enlarged adenoids and tonsils obstructing the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal airways. Investigations revealed the swelling to be a markedly dilated internal jugular vein. We discuss the diagnostic features and mode of treatment of this condition so as to avoid unnecessary and dangerous surgical intervention.
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ranking = 0.48506366325878
keywords = vein
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7/100. Right ovarian vein syndrome. A case with pre- and peroperative electromyographic registration of ureteral activity.

    Electrophysiological studies of ureteral function in a patient with right ovarian vein syndrome demonstrated intermittent antiperistalsis as reflected from pre-operative endoureteral activity recordings. The antiperistalsis was related to the patient intermittent right flank pain. Per-operative EMG and pressure measurements revealed that the antiperistalsis apparently arose from the area of obstruction and caused pressure waves of higher amplitude than those seen during normal anterograde peristaltic activity. After section of the vein, exclusively anterograde peristalsis was observed, and at 3 month follow-up, the patient was free of right side colics.
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ranking = 2.9103819795527
keywords = vein
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8/100. Idiopathic saccular aneurysm of the azygos vein.

    Idiopathic saccular aneurysm of the azygos vein is a rare condition. We report the case of a 52-year-old man with saccular aneurysm of the azygos vein who underwent surgical resection. Preoperative dynamic computed tomography revealed strong and rapid enhancement of the chest mass. magnetic resonance imaging showed a thoracic tumor with low signal intensity on the T1-weighted image and coexistence of low and high signal intensity on the T2-weighted image. Intraoperative findings showed cystic dilatation of the azygos vein. Although an accurate preoperative diagnosis of saccular azygos vein aneurysm is difficult, especially differential diagnosis between this anomaly and mediastinal tumors, a markedly enhanced mass shown by dynamic computed tomography was useful for the preoperative diagnosis of this anomaly.
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ranking = 3.8805093060702
keywords = vein
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9/100. Scleral ectasia as a complication of deep sclerectomy.

    Nonpenetrating deep sclerectomy is a filtration surgical technique to treat glaucoma. A 12-year-old girl presented with chronic arthritis complicated with glaucoma secondary to a chronic uveitis. A sclerectomy without a collagen implant was performed for uncontrollable glaucoma with deterioration in visual function. Three weeks later, the patient had a rise in intraocular pressure and a scleral ectasia on the sclerectomy. The eye showed an area of scleral ectasia in the bleb as well as iris adhesion. Partial resection of the bleb after iris detachment led to poor anatomic and IOP results. The indications for deep sclerectomy must be carefully considered, especially in patients at a young age with this type of glaucoma.
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ranking = 0.059745346964883
keywords = deep
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10/100. Aqueduct stenosis due to venous ectasia with a dural arteriovenous fistula.

    We report aqueduct compression by venous ectasia in a 65-year-old man with a dural arteriovenous fistula in the posterior cranial fossa draining into a superior vermian vein. Conventional and phase-contrast MRI showed the aqueduct stenosis and the causative dilated vein.
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ranking = 0.97012732651756
keywords = vein
(Clic here for more details about this article)
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