Cases reported "Dilatation, Pathologic"

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1/101. Complex right hemisphere developmental venous anomaly associated with multiple facial hemangiomas. Case report.

    Complex developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) represent variations of normal cerebral venous drainage and consist of dilation of the superficial and/or deep venous system. These rare anomalies can occur unilaterally or bilaterally, supratentorially or infratentorially, focally or they can affect the entire hemisphere. Some DVAs are associated with cervicofacial venous malformations or facial lymphatic malformations. Anomalies of this type are generally clinically silent, and cerebral dysfunction is usually absent. Symptoms, when they occur, are most commonly headache or mild seizure disorders. The angiographic findings are striking, with well-formed but enlarged transcerebral medullary and deep and/or superficial cortical veins. Opacification of these venous structures occurs within the same time frame as a normal angiographic venous phase. The authors report the case of a 33-year-old man in whom a large inoperable arteriovenous malformation had been previously diagnosed and who presented with seizures. Repeated magnetic resonance imaging and angiography demonstrated abnormally dilated transcerebral, superficial, and deep venous structures involving the entire right hemisphere with no identifiable nidus. Additionally, multiple bilateral benign facial hemangiomas were present in this patient. It is important to recognize this rare venous appearance as a developmental variant and not mistake it for an arteriovenous malformation or a partially thrombosed vein of Galen malformation. Because these venous anomalies are extreme variants of the normal venous system, hemorrhage rarely, if ever, occurs and the patient can be reassured that no interventional or surgical therapy is necessary or warranted.
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keywords = cerebral
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2/101. Bochdalek diaphragmatic hernia presenting with acute gastric dilatation.

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia through the foramen of Bochdalek may present after infancy. A 21/2-year-old Malay girl presented with acute respiratory distress. Chest examination showed reduced chest expansion and decreased breath sounds on the left side. Chest radiograph showed a large "cyst" in the left chest, which was thought to be a lung cyst under tension. Tube thoracostomy resulted in clinical improvement. Results of a barium study showed that the cyst perforated by the thoracostomy tube was the stomach, which had herniated through a Bochdalek diaphragmatic defect. Surgical repair of the diaphragmatic defect and closure of the perforated stomach was performed successfully. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia should be included in the differential diagnosis of respiratory distress in young children. Nasogastric tube placement must be considered as an early diagnostic or therapeutic intervention when the diagnosis is suspected.
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ranking = 0.1009522547182
keywords = foramen
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3/101. Clinical and neuroimaging study of central nervous system in congenital myotonic dystrophy.

    We present the clinical and neuroimaging findings of five patients (four males, one female; mean age 12 years) affected by congenital myotonic dystrophy and the correlation with their molecular genetic analysis. At birth all five presented severe muscular weakness and hypotonia, associated with feeding difficulties and respiratory distress. In the same patients, congenital clubfoot or more generalized arthrogryposis was also evident. Lymphocyte dna was characterized in each by a CTG repeat longer than 1300 in the region of the myotonic dystrophy gene in chromosome 19. The patients' neurological condition was evaluated by clinical examination, intelligence tests, electroencephalography, and brain magnetic resonance imaging. All five suffered from some impairment of intellectual function (IQ ranged from 52 to 79). In three a longitudinal evaluation of the cognitive deficit detected no deterioration. In all patients magnetic resonance imaging showed some degree of ventricular dilatation, loosely correlated to the cognitive impairment; in three there was hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and in two mild abnormalities of supratentorial white matter. The relationship between the size of the CTG repeat expansion found in lymphocyte dna and the cerebral abnormalities appeared inconsistent in this unusual myoencephalopathy of the newborn.
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keywords = cerebral
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4/101. Congenital dilation of the cervical epidural venous plexus: neuroradiology and endovenous management.

    We report a case of a 15-year-old girl suffering from cervicobrachialgia who was admitted to our service due to an enlarged neural foramen suspicious for a neurinoma. The cervical phlebography, however, revealed a space-occupying dilated epidural vein with increased blood supply from the suboccipital venous plexus. Lesions like this are absolutely rare, presumably of congenital origin and have not been described before. The lesion was treated by feeder occlusion applying platinum coils and enbucrilate via the internal jugular vein.
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ranking = 0.1009522547182
keywords = foramen
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5/101. cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in megalencephaly.

    macrocephaly is one of the signs most commonly used in the diagnosis of hydrocephalus. Two children are reported who presented with macrocephaly. The results of neurological examination were normal apart from delay in mental development. Head circumferences were above the 98th percentile. air studies showed mildly dilated ventricles with no obstruction, and ventriculolumbar perfusions indicated normal rates of cerebrospinal fluid formation and absorption. At seven years of age the children were mildly mentally retarded, with head circumferences above the 98th percentile. In the girl the ventricles were still mildly dilated but in the boy they were normal. It is concluded that the macrocephaly in these two children was the result of progressive megalencephaly and not of abnormal ventricular enlargement (hydrocephalus).
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ranking = 3.9717406727439
keywords = ventricle
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6/101. Tortuosity of the vertebral artery resulting in vertebral erosion.

    OBJECTIVE: To discuss the case of a patient with unilateral vertebral artery tortuosity and dilatation resulting in vertebral body and transverse foramen erosion. An emphasis is placed on diagnostic imaging. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 45-year-old man had a frozen shoulder and headaches. Previous arm pain, numbness, and a cold extremity were the result of occlusion of the subclavian artery and had been treated with a subclavian-carotid bypass procedure. INTERVENTION AND OUTCOME: As a result of the angiographic detection of the left vertebral artery dilatation and tortuosity and the concomitant hypoplastic right vertebral artery, high-velocity, low-amplitude manipulation of the cervical spine was contraindicated. However, the patient's symptoms were not related to these findings. Alternatively, low-force manipulation of the cervical spine, shoulder range of motion and muscle techniques were used, and the patient's symptoms diminished significantly with improved shoulder range of motion. CONCLUSION: Clinicians need to be alert to clinical presentations and appropriate imaging protocols in cases of suggested vertebral artery anomaly.
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ranking = 0.1009522547182
keywords = foramen
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7/101. Enlargement of mandibular canal without hypesthesia caused by extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report.

    A rare condition of enlargement of the mandibular canal caused by an extra-nodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in a 59-year-old Japanese woman was reported. The patient had a swelling of the hard palate and protrusion of both ocular bulbs, which had been present for 10 years. A panoramic radiograph revealed that the right mandibular canal was widely enlarged, extending from the mandibular foramen to the mental foramen, without bone destruction. The continuous dilation of the mandibular canal to an approximate 15-mm width was associated with peripheral bony sclerosis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a soft tissue tumor inside the mandibular canal. The lesion demonstrated expansive growth in the orbits, extending to the skull base through the superior orbital fissures and cavernous sinus. The lymphoma was suspected to have grown so slowly that the adjacent mandibular canal and ocular bulbs enlarged without destroying the normal bone and nervous tissue.
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ranking = 0.20190450943639
keywords = foramen
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8/101. citrobacter diversus urosepsis and cerebral abscess in a child with antenatal hydronephrosis.

    One percent of all pregnancies are found to have an antenatal abnormality; of these, 20% involve the genitourinary system. Today, controversy still exists regarding the postnatal management of some antenatal abnormalities detected by ultrasound. We present a case in which antenatal hydronephrosis initially detected by ultrasound appeared to resolve in utero. Postnatally, the child developed citrobacter diversus urosepsis, meningitis, and cerebral abscess. Voiding cystourethrogram obtained after resolution of sepsis revealed grade IV reflux. This case underscores the importance of a full postnatal evaluation for all children with antenatal hydronephrosis and alerts clinicians to a virulent pathogen not commonly associated with urinary tract infection.
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ranking = 1.25
keywords = cerebral
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9/101. Premature closure of the foramen ovale associated with aortic stenosis, left ventricular dilation with thrombus, and early mortality.

    Premature foramen ovale (FO) closure has been postulated as a cause of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. We suggest that premature FO closure is also associated with left ventricular (LV) dilation and LV thrombus formation, and that FO closure in patients with aortic stenosis and LV dilation is a secondary event that occurs later in gestation than that seen with the hypoplastic left heart.
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ranking = 0.50476127359099
keywords = foramen
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10/101. Isolated dilation of the trigono-inferior horn--four case reports.

    Four patients presented with isolated dilation of the trigono-inferior horn associated with either mass lesion at the trigone of the lateral ventricle or with shunt over-drainage. We investigated clinical symptoms, course, and neuroradiological findings of these cases. The pressure of the isolated ventricle was measured or estimated at surgery in all cases. The common symptoms were recent memory disturbance and contralateral homonymous hemianopia. Contralateral hemiparesis was observed occasionally. Rapid deterioration of the isolation caused uncal herniation in one case. Comma-shaped dilation of the inferior horn was observed in all cases. Midline shift was not conspicuous except in one case. Intraventricular pressure at surgery was 18 cmH2O, 35 cmH2O, 3 cmH2O, and within normal range. These cases had very similar clinical symptoms and neuroradiological findings. The pathophysiology of isolation suggested three types of isolation (high-, normal-, and low-pressure isolation), depending on the pressure of the isolated ventricle. The isolation of trigono-inferior horn is an important clinical entity as it may cause uncal herniation in patients with high-pressure lesions.
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ranking = 5.9576110091158
keywords = ventricle
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