Cases reported "Diplopia"

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1/186. Pituitary macroadenoma manifesting as an isolated fourth nerve palsy.

    PURPOSE: To describe an unusual ophthalmic manifestation of a pituitary adenoma. methods: Case report. RESULTS: A 32-year-old man had left supraorbital and frontal headaches and new-onset vertical diplopia. Examination showed a left fourth nerve palsy and increased vertical fusional amplitudes. magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a sellar mass consistent with a pituitary macroadenoma. CONCLUSION: A pituitary adenoma may rarely manifest with an isolated fourth nerve palsy.
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2/186. Fourth cranial nerve palsy in pediatric patients with pseudotumor cerebri.

    PURPOSE: To describe three children with acute fourth cranial nerve palsy secondary to pseudotumor cerebri. methods: We reviewed the medical records of children younger than 18 years who were diagnosed with pseudotumor cerebri between 1977 and 1997. pseudotumor cerebri was defined by normal neuro-imaging, elevated intracranial pressure measured by lumbar puncture, and normal cerebrospinal fluid composition. RESULTS: Three children with pseudotumor cerebri presented with vertical diplopia and clinical signs of fourth cranial nerve palsy including a hypertropia of the affected eye, which increased with adduction and ipsilateral head tilt. The fourth cranial nerve palsy resolved after reduction of the intracranial pressure in all three children. CONCLUSIONS: Fourth cranial nerve palsy may occur in children with pseudotumor cerebri and may be a nonspecific sign of elevated intracranial pressure.
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3/186. Cranial nerve palsy as a complication of operative traction.

    STUDY DESIGN: Case report. OBJECTIVE: This report documents one case of diplopia from abducens (sixth cranial) nerve palsy after spinal surgery using a Jackson table and cranial traction. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Cranial nerve deficits have frequently been described in the orthopedic literature after trauma, halo pelvic traction, and halo skeletal fixation. The theorized mechanism of injury to the abducens nerve involves stretch or traction force, which causes localized ischemia or a change in nerve position. An extensive literature search failed to show this type of injury using Gardner-Wells tongs in conjunction with the Jackson table. methods: This is a case report that included a chart review, examination of the patient, and a literature search. RESULTS: The patient had complete spontaneous resolution of abducens nerve dysfunction within 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: It is important for the surgeon to be aware of this potential complication and to inform patients who have diplopia that develops from abducens nerve palsy that most of these cranial nerve deficits spontaneously improve.
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4/186. Surgical treatment of paralysis of the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve.

    BACKGROUND: paralysis of the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve is relatively rare. Little has been written about its surgical treatment. methods: Five patients with paralysis of the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve were treated with transposition of the superior rectus muscle toward the insertion of the medial rectus muscle, transposition of the lateral rectus muscle toward the insertion of the inferior rectus muscle, and tenotomy of the superior oblique tendon in the affected eye. RESULTS: All 5 patients had a satisfactory outcome. They were free of diplopia in the primary position as of their last examination. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 10 years after surgery. CONCLUSION: paralysis of the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve can be adequately treated by simultaneous transposition of the superior rectus muscle toward the insertion of the medial rectus muscle, transposition of the lateral rectus muscle toward the insertion of the inferior rectus muscle, and tenotomy of the superior oblique tendon in the affected eye.
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5/186. Prolonged diplopia following a mandibular block injection.

    A case is presented in which a 14-yr-old girl developed diplopia after injection of the local anesthetic Xylotox E 80 A (2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine). Since the complication had a relatively slow onset and lasted for 24 hr, the commonly suggested explanations based on vascular, lymphatic, and neural route theories do not adequately fit the observations. No treatment, other than reassurance, was necessary, and the patient recovered fully.
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6/186. abducens nerve palsy complicating pregnancy: a case report.

    We report a case presented at 38 weeks gestation with abducens nerve palsy. No specific pathology was found. After reviewing all the previously reported cases, hypertension is found to be a common factor in all cases presenting in late pregnancy. The clinical course is benign and all resolved after delivery.
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7/186. Double vision in a child.

    A 10-year-old boy presented with a complete left oculomotor cranial nerve palsy. Diagnostic evaluation, including neuroimaging and cerebral angiography revealed a small intracranial aneurysm compressing the third nerve. Neurosurgical clipping of the aneurysm produced resolution of the third nerve palsy. The rarity of this presentation in a young patient is discussed, along with the importance of rapid diagnosis and treatment.
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8/186. Cyclic esotropia after a traumatic sixth nerve palsy in a child.

    Cyclic esotropia is a rare phenomenon in which esotropia and orthophoria alternate over a period of 48 to 96 hours. The mechanism that underlies the phenomenon is unknown. Cyclic esotropia often occurs after a fusion-disrupting event. We report an unusual case of cycling esotropia with onset after a traumatic sixth nerve palsy. The cyclic phase persisted for 2 years, following a 48-hour alternate-day pattern. After strabismus surgery for the esotropic angle, the deviation disappeared and the patient remained orthotropic, with 1 year of follow-up to date.
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9/186. Decompensated strabismus after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    We present a case of decompensated nerve IV palsy with vertical diplopia afer bilateral laser in situ keratomileusis. As the patient was given monovision, we believe diplopia occurred with a decrease in vision in 1 eye and interruption of fusion. Although corrective spectacles to restore equal vision at distance were prescribes, the patient needed a prism to eliminate her double vision. We suggest a careful cover/uncover test and versions assessment in all candidates for refractive surgery who want monovision correction and a full ocular motility evaluation if there is any doubt about binocular issues.
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10/186. Fresnel membrane prisms: clinical experience.

    BACKGROUND: There are few published reports on the clinical application of Fresnel membrane prisms in the treatment of diplopia in adults. The authors describe the use of these prisms in patients with fourth and sixth cranial nerve palsies, restrictive motility caused by thyroid-related orbital disease, and convergence insufficiency. methods: Of 209 patients who had been treated with Fresnel prisms, 141 were selected. The database included patients from a private practice in Montreal, seen from 1988 to 1996, and patients seen by orthoptists in the ophthalmology department of a children's hospital in Montreal between 1992 and 1996. All the patients had diplopia associated with fourth (48 patients) or sixth (43 patients) cranial nerve palsy, thyroid-related orbitopathy (18 patients) or convergence insufficiency (32 patients). After qualitative and quantitative assessment of the ocular misalignment, a Fresnel prism was selected for power and axis and for appropriate location on the spectacle lens. Ocular dominance and side of paresis or restriction were also considered in the placement of the prism. The patient's response to treatment was documented. RESULTS: The Fresnel prisms were oriented horizontally in 72 patients (51%), vertically in 55 (39%) and obliquely in 14 (10%). They were placed on the spectacle lens before the nondominant eye in 127 cases (90%), either covering the entire lens, or on the upper or lower segment or both. The patients were followed for an average of 15 (range 2 to 96) months. Of the 141 patients 113 (80%) had a successful outcome, with relief of their diplopia. Twenty-seven patients (19%) eventually had the prismatic correction ground into the lens, 70 (50%) chose to wear the Fresnel prism on a permanent basis because incorporation into the lens was not possible or because of cost, and 17 (12%) used the Fresnel prism as a temporary device before or after surgery. Most patients who converted to incorporated prisms did so when the prismatic power became stable, usually after 6 to 8 months. Eight patients (6%) stopped using the prism because of associated side effects, such as blurred vision, persistent diplopia, torsion or optical aberrations. INTERPRETATION: The Fresnel prism is an excellent device in treating diplopia in adult patients. It is a reasonable permanent option when incorporating the prism into the spectacle lens is not possible. A fused blurred image caused by a Fresnel prism placed in front of the nondominant eye is preferable to double but clear images.
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