Cases reported "Disease Models, Animal"

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1/11. Genetic disorders and molecular mechanisms in cholestatic liver disease--a clinical approach.

    cholestasis may result from genetic or acquired defects in bile secretion. Cloning of hepatobiliary transporter genes has advanced our understanding of the molecular basis of bile formation and cholestasis. Hereditary mutations of transporter genes, exposure to cholestatic injury (eg, drugs, hormones, cytokines), or the combination of both can result in reduced expression and function of hepatobiliary transport systems. These molecular changes impair hepatic uptake and excretion of bile salts and other organic anions (eg, bilirubin). Other molecular changes contibuting to cholestasis include alterations of membrane fluidity, cytoskeleton, vesicle movement, and cell contacts. Transporter mutations can be diagnosed at the molecular genetic level. Gene therapy and hepatocyte transplantation could be used in the future to correct hereditary transport defects. Drugs used to treat cholestatic liver diseases (eg, ursodeoxycholic acid) stimulate and partially restore defective transporter expression and function. New information on the molecular mechanisms of cholestasis should lead to the development of novel drugs for cholestatic liver diseases.
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2/11. Clinical and experimental progression of a new model of human prostate cancer and therapeutic approach.

    We report the clinical evolution of a prostate cancer, metastasizing to lungs and bones, recurring locally, and escaping from anti-androgen therapy. Key event of biological progression of the patient's tumor was the coincidence of allelic imbalance accumulation and of bone metastases occurrence. The recurrent tumor was established as the transplantable xenograft PAC120 in nude mice, where it grew locally. PAC120 displayed the same immunophenotype of the original tumor (positive for keratin, vimentin, prostatic acid phosphatase, and Leu-7) and expressed human HOXB9, HOXA4, HER-2/neu, and prostate-specific antigen genes, as detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. It formed lung micrometastases detected by mRNA expression of human genes. cytogenetic analysis demonstrated numerous alterations reflecting the tumor evolution. PAC120 was still hormone-dependent; its growth was strongly inhibited by the new gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist FE 200486 but weakly by gonadotropin-releasing hormone superagonist D-Trp(6)-luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone (decapeptyl). Tumor growth inhibition induced by anti-hormone therapy was linked to the hormone deprivation degree, more important and more stable with FE 200486 than with D-Trp(6)-luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone. Surgical castration of mice led to tumor regressions but did not prevent late recurrences. Transition to hormone-independent tumors was frequently associated with a mucoid differentiation or with a neuroendocrine-like pattern. Independent variations of mRNA expression of HER-2/neu and prostate-specific antigen were observed in hormone-independent tumors whereas HOXB9 gene expression was constant. In conclusion, PAC120 xenograft, a new model of hormone-dependent prostate cancer retained the progression potential of the original tumor, opening the opportunity to study the hormone dependence escape mechanism.
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3/11. PAGOD syndrome: eighth case and comparison to animal models of congenital vitamin a deficiency.

    We observed a 46, XY infant with atrophy of the optic nerve, complex congenital heart disease including a double outlet right ventricle, hypoplasia of the right pulmonary artery and lung, eventration of the diaphragm, and ambiguous genitalia. The baby died of cardiac arrhythmias at 204 days. The pattern of malformations was compatible with pulmonary tract and pulmonary artery, agonadism, omphalocele, diaphragmatic defect, and dextrocardia (PAGOD) syndrome. The condition may resemble the malformation complex associated with developmental deficiency of vitamin A or retinoic acid, as described in animal models.
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4/11. Pathogenic mechanism, prophylaxis, and therapy of symptomatic acidosis induced by acetazolamide.

    BACKGROUND: acetazolamide, a noncompetitive carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, can produce symptomatic acidosis and bone marrow suppression by a mechanism that is still unknown. This presentation occurs in the elderly, patients with renal or liver failure, people with diabetes, and newborns. The objective of this study was to understand the pathogenic mechanism of these adverse effects and to propose a possible prophylaxis and therapy. methods: Four human clinical cases were studied, and one animal experiment was performed. Four preterm newborns with posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation developed severe metabolic acidosis after treatment with acetazolamide. The acidosis suddenly disappeared after a packed red blood cell transfusion. Metabolic studies were performed in one patient and in newborn guinea pigs treated with 200 mg/kg acetazolamide. RESULTS: acetazolamide can produce severe lactic acidosis with an increased lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, ketosis with a low beta-hydroxybutyrate-to-acetoacetate ratio, and a urinary organic acid profile typical of pyruvate carboxylase deficiency. The acquired enzymatic injury resulting from the inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase v that provides bicarbonate to pyruvate carboxylase can produce tricarboxylic acid cycle damage. We demonstrate that the dramatic disappearance of metabolic acidosis and normalizing metabolism after blood transfusion were due to the citrate contained in the packed red blood cell bag. This hypothesis was confirmed by animal experimentation. We argue that the metabolic disorder and bone marrow suppression may be related. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate how acetazolamide can lead to symptomatic metabolic acidosis and probably to bone marrow suppression. We suggest citrate as a possible prophylaxis and treatment for these adverse reactions.
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5/11. role of protein binding of cytotoxic anions in post-traumatic pulmonary insufficiency.

    anions of fatty acids infused intravenously into dogs clearly duplicate the clinical syndrome of post-traumatic pulmonary insufficiency (congestive atelectasis, shock lung, traumatic wet lung). Neutral fat embolized to the lungs is incapable of producing this syndrome within the time investigated. The incubation of fatty acid anions with human serum albumin before injection obviates the severe desaturation of blood and ultrastructure disruption caused by FAA alone.
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6/11. Iron-mobilizing properties of the gadolinium-DTPA complex: clinical and experimental observations.

    BACKGROUND: gadolinium (Gd) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents are considered to be safe in patients with impaired renal function. Our study investigates a mechanism of severe iron intoxication with life-threatening serum iron levels in a haemodialysis patient following MRI with Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) administration. His previous history was remarkable for multiple blood transfusions and biochemical evidence of iron overload. We hypothesized that Gd-DTPA may have an iron-mobilizing effect in specific conditions of iron overload combined with prolonged exposure to the agent. methods: For the in vitro study, Gd-DTPA was added to mice liver homogenate and iron metabolism parameters were measured after incubation in comparison with the same samples incubated with saline only. For the in vivo study, an experimental model of acute renal failure in iron-overloaded rats was designed. Previously iron-overloaded and normally fed rats underwent bilateral nephrectomy by renal pedicle ligation, followed by Gd-DTPA or saline injection. Iron and iron saturation levels were checked before and 24 h after Gd-DTPA or vehicle administration. RESULTS: Significant mobilization of iron from mice liver tissue homogenate in mixtures with Gd in vitro was seen in the control (saline) and in the experimental (Gd) groups (513 /-99.1 vs 1117.8 /-360.8 microg/dl, respectively; P<0.05). Administration of Gd-DTPA to iron-overloaded rats after renal pedicle ligation caused marked elevation of serum iron from baseline 143 /-3.4 to 570 /-8 microg/dl (P<0.0001). There were no changes of the named parameter, either in iron-overloaded anuric rats after saline injection or in normal diet uraemic animals, following Gd-DTPA administration. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of iron overload and lack of adequate clearance of Gd chelates may cause massive liberation of iron with dangerous elevation of free serum iron. It is highly recommended that after Gd contrast study, end-stage renal disease patients with probable iron overload should undergo prompt and intensive haemodialysis for prevention of this serious complication.
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7/11. Effect of a bacterial pheromone peptide on host chemokine degradation in group A streptococcal necrotising soft-tissue infections.

    BACKGROUND: Necrotising soft-tissue infections due to group A streptococcus (GAS) are rare (about 0.2 cases per 100000 people). The disease progresses rapidly, causing severe necrosis and hydrolysis of soft tissues. Histopathological analysis of necrotic tissue debrided from two patients (one with necrotising fasciitis and one with myonecrosis) showed large quantities of bacteria but no infiltrating neutrophils. We aimed to investigate whether the poor neutrophil chemotaxis was linked with the ability of group A streptococcus (GAS) to degrade host chemokines. methods: We did RT-PCR, ELISA, and dot-blot assays to establish whether GAS induces synthesis of interleukin 8 mRNA, but subsequently degrades the released chemokine protein. Class-specific protease inhibitors were used to characterise the protease that degraded the chemokine. We used a mouse model of human soft-tissue infections to investigate the pathogenic relevance of GAS chemokine degradation, and to test the therapeutic effect of a GAS pheromone peptide (SilCR) that downregulates activity of chemokine protease. FINDINGS: The only isolates from the necrotic tissue were two beta-haemolytic GAS strains of an M14 serotype. A trypsin-like protease released by these strains degraded human interleukin 8 and its mouse homologue MIP2. When innoculated subcutaneously in mice, these strains produced a fatal necrotic soft-tissue infection that had reduced neutrophil recruitment to the site of injection. The M14 GAS strains have a missense mutation in the start codon of silCR, which encodes a predicted 17 aminoacid pheromone peptide, SilCR. growth of the M14 strain in the presence of SilCR abrogated chemokine proteolysis. When SilCR was injected together with the bacteria, abundant neutrophils were recruited to the site of infection, bacteria were cleared without systemic spread, and the mice survived. The therapeutic effect of SilCR was also obtained in mice challenged with M1 and M3 GAS strains, a leading cause of invasive infections. INTERPRETATION: The unusual reduction in neutrophils in necrotic tissue of people with GAS soft-tissue infections is partly caused by a GAS protease that degrades interleukin 8. In mice, degradation can be controlled by administration of SilCR, which downregulates GAS chemokine protease activity. This downregulation increases neutrophil migration to the site of infection, preventing bacterial spread and development of a fulminant lethal systemic infection.
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8/11. Identification of a human mutation of DMT1 in a patient with microcytic anemia and iron overload.

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) is a transmembrane protein crucial for duodenal iron absorption and erythroid iron transport. DMT1 function has been elucidated largely in studies of the mk mouse and the Belgrade rat, which have an identical single nucleotide mutation of this gene that affects protein processing, stability, and function. These animals exhibit hypochromic microcytic anemia due to impaired intestinal iron absorption, and defective iron utilization in red cell precursors. We report here the first human mutation of DMT1 identified in a female with severe hypochromic microcytic anemia and iron overload. This homozygous mutation in the ultimate nucleotide of exon 12 codes for a conservative E399D amino acid substitution; however, its pre-dominant effect is preferential skipping of exon 12 during processing of pre-messenger rna (mRNA). The lack of full-length mRNA would predict deficient iron absorption in the intestine and deficient iron utilization in erythroid precursors; however, unlike the animal models of DMT1 mutation, the patient is iron overloaded. This does not appear to be due to up-regulation of total DMT1 mRNA. DMT1 protein is easily detectable by immunoblotting in the patient's duodenum, but it is unclear whether the protein is properly processed or targeted.
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9/11. Pathophysiology of human proximal tubular transport defects.

    The generalized proximal tubular transport abnormalities comprising the fanconi syndrome (glycosuria, generalized aminoaciduria, the proximal form of renal tubular acidosis, and increased renal clearance of phosphate, urate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium) may be ascribed to interference with "sodiumlinked" active transport. Evidence is presented that the majority of conditions known to cause fanconi syndrome in man or experimental animals are associated with inhibitors of the renal Na-K-ATPase-ATP transport system.
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10/11. Fatal microvascular pulmonary emboli from precipitation of a total nutrient admixture solution.

    BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal respiratory failure and death occurred in two young adult females with pelvic infections. autopsy revealed an amorphous material containing calcium obstructing the pulmonary microvasculature of each patient. Both patients received an identical total nutrient admixture (TNA) solution before their deaths. methods: Infusion of TNA into an animal model was undertaken in an effort to reproduce the clinical effect. Laboratory investigation was also performed to isolate a precipitate and identify the factors contributing to precipitation. RESULTS: A nonvisible precipitate containing calcium, phosphorus, and organic material was isolated from the TNA solution. Infusion of the formulation into healthy pigs resulted in sudden death within 4 hours. Alteration of the amino acid component, mix sequence, agitation technique, and mixing container influenced precipitate formation. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary embolization of a precipitate containing calcium phosphate resulted in the death of two patients. The pH of the amino acid component, transient elevation of calcium and phosphorus concentrations during mixing, and the lack of agitation during automated preparation of the formulation were identified as the etiologic factors producing the fatal precipitate.
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