Cases reported "Disease Models, Animal"

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1/19. Human equivalent of the mouse Nude/SCID phenotype: long-term evaluation of immunologic reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation.

    Human Nude/SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) is the first severe combined immunodeficiency caused by mutation of the winged-helix-nude (WHN) gene, which is expressed in the thymus but not in the hematopoietic lineage. The disease is characterized by a T-cell defect, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy. A Nude/SCID patient who underwent bone marrow transplantation from the human leukocyte antigen-identical heterozygote brother was studied to investigate, in this unique model, the role of the thymus in immunologic reconstitution. Despite an increase in CD3( ), CD4( ), and CD8( ) cells, CD4( ) CD45 RA naive lymphocytes were not regenerated. Conversely, naive CD8( ) cells were normal. After an initial recovery, lymphocyte proliferation to mitogens progressively declined compared with controls and genotypically identical donor cells grown in the WHN( /-) environment. Analysis of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of CD4( ) cells revealed that only 3 of 18 Vbeta families had an altered CDR3 heterogeneity length profile. Conversely, CD8( ) lymphocytes showed an abnormal distribution in most Vbeta families. These data indicate that the thymus is differentially required in the reconstitution of CD4( ) and CD8( ) naive subsets and in the maintenance of their TCR repertoire complexity. Taken together, these findings suggest that bone marrow transplantation is ineffective in the long-term cure of this form of SCID.
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2/19. Analysis of p53 inactivation in a human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax transgenic mouse model.

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). The HTLV-1 Tax protein has been strongly linked to oncogenesis and is considered to be the transforming protein of this virus. A Tax transgenic mouse model was utilized to study the contribution of p53 inactivation to Tax-mediated tumorigenesis. These mice develop primary, peripheral tumors consisting of large granular lymphocytic (LGL) cells, which also infiltrate the lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen, liver, and lungs. Primary Tax-induced tumors and tumor-derived cell lines exhibited functional inactivation of the p53 apoptotic pathway; such tumors and tumor cell lines were resistant to an apoptosis-inducing stimulus. In contrast, p53 mutations in tumors were found to be associated with secondary organ infiltration. Three of four identified mutations inhibited transactivation and apoptosis induction activities in vitro. Furthermore, experiments which involved mating Tax transgenic mice with p53-deficient mice demonstrated minimal acceleration in initial tumor formation, but significantly accelerated disease progression and death in mice heterozygous for p53. These studies suggest that functional inactivation of p53 by HTLV-1 Tax, whether by mutation or another mechanism, is not critical for initial tumor formation, but contributes to late-stage tumor progression.
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keywords = bone
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3/19. Clinical and experimental progression of a new model of human prostate cancer and therapeutic approach.

    We report the clinical evolution of a prostate cancer, metastasizing to lungs and bones, recurring locally, and escaping from anti-androgen therapy. Key event of biological progression of the patient's tumor was the coincidence of allelic imbalance accumulation and of bone metastases occurrence. The recurrent tumor was established as the transplantable xenograft PAC120 in nude mice, where it grew locally. PAC120 displayed the same immunophenotype of the original tumor (positive for keratin, vimentin, prostatic acid phosphatase, and Leu-7) and expressed human HOXB9, HOXA4, HER-2/neu, and prostate-specific antigen genes, as detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. It formed lung micrometastases detected by mRNA expression of human genes. cytogenetic analysis demonstrated numerous alterations reflecting the tumor evolution. PAC120 was still hormone-dependent; its growth was strongly inhibited by the new gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist FE 200486 but weakly by gonadotropin-releasing hormone superagonist D-Trp(6)-luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone (decapeptyl). Tumor growth inhibition induced by anti-hormone therapy was linked to the hormone deprivation degree, more important and more stable with FE 200486 than with D-Trp(6)-luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone. Surgical castration of mice led to tumor regressions but did not prevent late recurrences. Transition to hormone-independent tumors was frequently associated with a mucoid differentiation or with a neuroendocrine-like pattern. Independent variations of mRNA expression of HER-2/neu and prostate-specific antigen were observed in hormone-independent tumors whereas HOXB9 gene expression was constant. In conclusion, PAC120 xenograft, a new model of hormone-dependent prostate cancer retained the progression potential of the original tumor, opening the opportunity to study the hormone dependence escape mechanism.
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4/19. Pathogenic mechanism, prophylaxis, and therapy of symptomatic acidosis induced by acetazolamide.

    BACKGROUND: acetazolamide, a noncompetitive carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, can produce symptomatic acidosis and bone marrow suppression by a mechanism that is still unknown. This presentation occurs in the elderly, patients with renal or liver failure, people with diabetes, and newborns. The objective of this study was to understand the pathogenic mechanism of these adverse effects and to propose a possible prophylaxis and therapy. methods: Four human clinical cases were studied, and one animal experiment was performed. Four preterm newborns with posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation developed severe metabolic acidosis after treatment with acetazolamide. The acidosis suddenly disappeared after a packed red blood cell transfusion. Metabolic studies were performed in one patient and in newborn guinea pigs treated with 200 mg/kg acetazolamide. RESULTS: acetazolamide can produce severe lactic acidosis with an increased lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, ketosis with a low beta-hydroxybutyrate-to-acetoacetate ratio, and a urinary organic acid profile typical of pyruvate carboxylase deficiency. The acquired enzymatic injury resulting from the inhibition of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase v that provides bicarbonate to pyruvate carboxylase can produce tricarboxylic acid cycle damage. We demonstrate that the dramatic disappearance of metabolic acidosis and normalizing metabolism after blood transfusion were due to the citrate contained in the packed red blood cell bag. This hypothesis was confirmed by animal experimentation. We argue that the metabolic disorder and bone marrow suppression may be related. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate how acetazolamide can lead to symptomatic metabolic acidosis and probably to bone marrow suppression. We suggest citrate as a possible prophylaxis and treatment for these adverse reactions.
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5/19. Characterization of a renal cell carcinoma cell line derived from a human bone metastasis and establishment of an experimental nude mouse model.

    PURPOSE: We provide the necessary tools to study the biology of bone metastasis using renal cell carcinoma as a model. A relevant renal cell carcinoma cell line developed from a human bone metastasis is described and an experimental model in the nude mouse was established. MATERIALS AND methods: The novel cell line RBM1 was developed from bone metastasis from a patient with renal cell carcinoma. in vitro methods used to study the cell line included karyotype analysis, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, ribonuclease protection assay and Western blot analysis. An intratibial injection model in the nude mouse resulted in bone lesions similar to those in human patients. RESULTS: Chromosomal analysis of this cell line revealed characteristic cytogenetic abnormalities common in renal cell carcinoma. RBM1 cells expressed parathyroid hormone parathyroid hormone related peptide, interleukin-6 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which are cytokines involved in osteoclast activation and subsequent bone resorption. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of high levels of epidermal growth factor receptor and c-MET. Reproducible osteolytic lesions developed in the nude mouse after injecting 1 x 106 cells into the tibia. CONCLUSIONS: This cell line and animal model may allow further study of the biology and mechanism of renal cell carcinoma bone metastasis.
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ranking = 22.307872918817
keywords = macrophage, bone
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6/19. Clinical and molecular features of the immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X linked (IPEX) syndrome.

    Immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X linked (IPEX, OMIM 304790) is a rare, recessive disorder resulting in aggressive autoimmunity and early death. Mutations in FOXP3 have been identified in 13 of 14 patients tested. research in the mouse model, scurfy, suggests that autoimmunity may stem from a lack of working regulatory T cells. We review published reports regarding the genetics, clinical features, immunology, pathology, and treatment of IPEX. We also report three new patients who were treated with long term immunosuppression, followed by bone marrow transplantation in two. IPEX can be differentiated from other genetic immune disorders by its genetics, clinical presentation, characteristic pattern of pathology, and, except for high IgE, absence of substantial laboratory evidence of immunodeficiency. While chronic treatment with immunosuppressive drugs may provide temporary benefit for some patients, it does not cause complete remission. Remission has been observed with bone marrow transplantation despite incomplete engraftment, but the long term outcome is uncertain.
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7/19. Pathogenesis of cerebral cryptococcus neoformans infection after fungemia.

    The pathogenesis of cerebral infection after cryptococcus neoformans fungemia in outbred mice was investigated. Confocal microscopy and cultures on ficoll-hypaque gradient-separated blood cells were used to detect yeasts in the cytoplasms of monocytes. In semithin brain sections, poorly capsulated yeasts were seen in macrophages in the leptomeningeal space, in monocytes circulating in leptomeningeal capillaries, or in the endothelial cells themselves, strengthening the hypothesis that monocytes and endothelial cells play key roles in the pathogenesis of cryptococcal meningitis. Similar fungal loads and cellular reactions were seen in mice and in 1 patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), all with acute cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, and in mice and in 1 patient with AIDS, all with cured cryptococcal infection. Immunostaining revealed both the presence of cryptococcal polysaccharide in various brain cells and antigenic variability both from yeast cell to yeast cell and over time. Thus, our data established the relevance and interest that this experimental model has for investigation of the pathogenesis of human cryptococcal meningitis.
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keywords = macrophage
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8/19. Rituximab, cyclophosphamide, dexamethasone (RCD) regimen induces cure in WSU-WM xenograft model and a partial remission in previously treated Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia patient.

    Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM) is an uncommon lymphoproliferative disease which remains incurable with current treatment protocols. We have previously established a permanent WM cell line, WSU-WM, which grows as a xenograft in severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects of Rituximab (RTX), cyclophosphamide (CTX), dexamethasone (DEX) [RCD]-Regimen in vivo WSU-WM SCID xenograft and in a patient with WM. For the pre-clinical efficacy study, WSU-WM-bearing SCID mice were randomly assigned to receive RTX (150 mg/kg/inj, i.v., QDX5), CTX (90 mg/kg/inj, s.c. QDX5) as single agents or diluent. The combination group received RTX at 150 mg/kg/inj, QDX5; CTX at 150 mg/kg/inj, QODX3 and DEX at 1.0 mg/kg/inj, i.v., QDX5. Tumor growth inhibition (T/C), tumor growth delay (T - C), and log10 kill (net) for RTX and CTX were 24.5%, 37 days, 5.52 and 88%, 0.0 days, 0.0log10 kill, respectively. No cures were observed with either agent; however, all mice (6/6, with bilateral tumors) were cured when treated with RCD-regimen. A 57-year-old patient with relapsed WM was treated with the RCD-regimen and showed an excellent partial remission for seven months. The patient tolerated the treatment very well, the hemoglobin improved dramatically, platelets remained stable, the IgM level normalized and there was only minimal involvement of bone marrow. Based on these results, the RCD regimen is effective against WM and its activity should be further evaluated in clinical trials.
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9/19. The effect of repeated phlebotomy on bilirubin turnover, bilirubin clearance and unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia in the crigler-najjar syndrome and the jaundiced Gunn rat: application of computers to experimental design.

    1. A multicompartmental model of erythrokinetics and bilirubin production has been developed to predict the consequences of chronic phlebotomy on daily bilirubin turnover. 2. Control values for four physiological variables including bilirubin turnover were determined in a 20-year-old woman with type I congenital nonhaemolytic jaundice (crigler-najjar syndrome). With these base-line data, the model predicted the following changes during phlebotomy: a 34% fall in bilirubin turnover; a 240% increase in the haemoglobin content of bone-marrow erythroid precursors; a 25% fall in the half-life of 51Cr-labelled erythrocytes; a characteristic alteration of the erythrocyte survival curve after labelling with [2-14C]glycine. 3. On the assumption, previously validated in normal volunteer subjects and patients with Gilbert's syndrome, that hepatic bilirubin clearance was independent of turnover and would therefore remain unchanged, a fall in plasma unconjugated bilirubin concentration during phlebotomy from 436 to 282 mumol/1 was expected. 4. Accordingly, the patient underwent phlebotomy 350 ml/week for 2 months, and 500 ml/week during an additional 3 months. Appropriate studies during phlebotomy confirmed each of the predictions in paragraph 2 above. In particular, turnover fell by 31%. Unexpectedly, plasma unconjugated bilirubin remained essentially unchanged. Analogous results were observed in phlebotomized jaundiced Gunn rats. 5. Kinetic studies in both the patient and the rats demonstrated that the failure of plasma unconjugated bilirubin to fall in parallel with bilirubin turnover resulted from a prolongation of the terminal half-life of radioactively labelled bilirubin and a fall in bilirubin clearance in every instance. 6. These studies indicate that (a) in congenital non-haemolytic jaundice, bilirubin clearance is uniquely influenced by bilirubin turnover and (b) compartmental modelling and kinetic studies are useful for predicting and interpreting the results of both physiological experiments and experimental therapeutic regimens.
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10/19. Cochlear and vestibular epithelia from a patient with Meniere's disease: a case study.

    Scanning electron microscopy observations were carried out on the cochlear and vestibular epithelia of the left temporal bone of a Meniere's patient. There was almost complete absence of hair cells in the basal turn of the cochlea. The outer hair cells of the second turn presented an abnormal shortening of the shorter stereocilia within a tuft, reminiscent of the specific atrophy of the short and middle stereocilia in the ciliary tufts of outer hair cells in the guinea pig with experimental hydrops. The cilia of the inner hair cells showed fusion and giant cilia formation. hair cells were observed in the apical turn which showed no pathological features in particular. In the saccular epithelium there were a number of striking features including, loss of the kinocilium, loss of ciliary tufts, swelling of the sensory cells, holes in the epithelium, and sensory cells pushed out and lying on the surface. The utricular epithelium was less perturbed and showed only relatively small protrusions from the epithelial surface. Similar observations have earlier been made on the vestibular epithelium in experimental hydrops. After taking into consideration the relatively long delay to fixation (12 hours) it appeared that the sacculus was more fragile and prone to autolysis than the other organs suggesting that the in-vivo pathology was manifested in particular in that organ as would be predicted from Meniere's symptoms.
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