Cases reported "Disease Models, Animal"

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1/3. Opiate-antagonist reversal of neurological deficits--experimental and clinical studies.

    The proximal left M1 and the common trunk of A2 were clipped in 12 adult dogs. naloxone was injected after placing the clips onto 6 dogs. Neither the systemic blood pressure nor the local cerebral blood flow were influenced by naloxone. In another group of 6 dogs with chronic right hemiplegia, naloxone proved passably effective in improving the hemiplegia. Eight patients with neurological deficits of various etiologies were administered levallorphan. The improvement in motor performance and/or elevation of mental activity was observed more or less in all but 2 of the patients. It was considered that the effect of opiate antagonists is based partially on the facilitation of synaptic transmission exaggerated by the arousal response.
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2/3. Polypoid and papillary epithelial hyperplasia: a potential cause of ductal obstruction in adult polycystic disease.

    In experimental models of cystic renal disease, functional studies define conditions that suggest increased resistance to outflow from dilated or cystic nephrons. Morphologically, models exhibit foci of cellular hyperplasia and micropolyp formation along outer medullary collecting tubules. Temporally, cellular proliferation precedes cyst formation. These findings in models have led to a hypothesis that polypoid hyperplasia participates in cyst formation in susceptible kidneys by increasing resistance to the outflow of tubular urine. The present study was undertaken to establish the presence, extent, and distribution of cellular hyperplasia in human adult polycystic kidney disease. Kidneys from four unrelated individuals were studied by light and by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Foci of hocation of hyperplasia along the nephron were similar to those seen in the models. These findings delineate a heretofore unappreciated morphologic similarity between the models and human disease and add further support to the hypothesis that partial rubular obstruction participates in the pathogenesis of renal cystic disease, whether it be heritable or acquired, in animals and in man.
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3/3. Studies on a primaquine-tolerant strain of plasmodium vivax from brazil in Aotus and saimiri monkeys.

    A nonimmune American acquired an infection of plasmodium vivax Type 1 malaria in brazil in 1994. After returning to the U.S.A., he had a primary attack followed by 3 relapses. The primary attack and first 2 relapses were treated with a standard regimen of chloroquine, followed by 14 days of primaquine (15 mg/day). Following the third relapse, the primaquine treatment was extended to 28 days. No further relapses occurred. The lack of response to primaquine by this strain may recommend it as a suitable candidate for chemotherapeutic study if it can be adapted to an animal model. Anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquitoes infected by feeding on the patient during the first relapse were used to establish the strain in Aotus and saimiri monkeys. Monkeys supported well the development of long-lasting parasitemia. Anopheles freeborni, Anopheles stephensi, and anopheles gambiae mosquitoes were readily infected by feeding on the monkeys and by membrane feeding on diluted blood. Monkey-to-monkey transmission was obtained via the bites of infected mosquitoes and the intravenous injection of sporozoites dissected from salivary glands. This parasite is designated as the brazil I/CDC strain of P. vivax.
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