Cases reported "disease models, animal"

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1/195. Single-vessel arteriovenous revascularization of the amputated ear.

    Successful single-vessel arteriovenous replantation of a completely amputated human ear is described. This result was followed by an experimental study using a rabbit model, to confirm that an amputated ear could survive replantation with only a single arteriovenous anastomosis. Fifteen animals were placed in one of two experimental groups: Group 1-arteriovenous replantation, no treatment (n = 6); and Group 2-arteriovenous replantation with medicinal leeching (n = 9). All ears demonstrated initial reperfusion of the replantation immediately following microanastomosis. Laser Doppler flow readings in the non-leeched replanted ears fell to zero by 8 hr and, by 12 hr, the non-leeched ears demonstrated signs of necrosis. All the leeched, replanted ears demonstrated perfusion and complete viability at the time of sacrifice. The case report, combined with the results from the experimental study, confirm that single-vessel arteriovenous replantation of an amputated ear is feasible. ( info)

2/195. Connatal pelizaeus-merzbacher disease associated with the jimpy(msd) mice mutation.

    In a patient with connatal pelizaeus-merzbacher disease with the same mutation in the proteolipid protein gene as in jimpy(msd) mice the immunohistochemical study of the brain demonstrated deficiencies of myelin and proteolipid protein despite good expression of myelin basic protein. The mechanism of myelination is partly disturbed by the mutation; therefore jimpy(msd) mice can be used as a suitable model for further studies in connatal pelizaeus-merzbacher disease. ( info)

3/195. Fatal combined intoxication with new antidepressants. Human cases and an experimental study of postmortem moclobemide redistribution.

    Three cases are presented in which death was caused by suicidal intoxication with moclobemide in combination with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Both antidepressant drug types are considered to be relatively safe with regard to lethal overdose. However, the combination may cause the serotonin syndrome, a condition with a high mortality rate. In one of the cases, there was clinical information consistent with the serotonin syndrome, in the two other cases, there was no information of the clinical course. Postmortem redistribution of the selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor moclobemide was investigated in a rat model. Postmortem concentrations in blood from the vena cava and the heart were found to be in good accordance with antemortem concentrations. Postmortem concentrations in vitreous humour and various tissues were also measured. The apparent volume of distribution was calculated to be 0.95 /- 0.10 l/kg, which is in the same range as that reported in man. ( info)

4/195. Tension pneumothorax.

    The diagnosis of tension pneumothorax has typically been taught as the presence of hemodynamic compromise with an expanding intrapleural space air mass. This may occur quickly or gradually, depending on the degree of lung injury and respiratory state of the patient. Experimentally, tension pneumothorax is a multifactorial event that manifests a state of central hypoxemia, compensatory mechanisms, and mechanical compression on intrathoracic structures. Studies using animal models suggest that over hypotension is a delayed finding that immediately precedes cardiorespiratory collapse. Recognition of early signs and symptoms associated with tension pneumothorax, e.g., progressive hypoxemia, tachycardia, and respiratory distress, can alert medical personnel to the need for rapid decompression before physiologic decompensation. ( info)

5/195. Correction of ureagenesis after gene transfer in an animal model and after liver transplantation in humans with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    We report effects of gene transfer and liver transplantation on urea synthesis in ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD). We measured the formation of [15N] urea after oral administration of 15NH4Cl in two girls with partial OTCD before and after liver transplantation. Ureagenesis was less than 20% of that observed in controls before transplantation, and was normalized afterward. Studies performed on the OTCD sparse fur (spf/Y) mouse showed discordance between OTC enzyme activity and ureagenesis with modest increases in OTC enzyme activity after gene transfer resulting in significant improvement in ureagenesis. This study suggests that both liver transplantation and gene therapy may be effective in improving ureagenesis in OTCD. ( info)

6/195. Chest wall reconstruction with autologas rib grafts in dogs and report of a clinic case.

    OBJECTIVE: Nowadays, in chest wall reconstruction prosthetic materials are generally used. However, the rejections of prosthetic materials and infections frequently occur in chest wall reconstruction, especially after radiotherapy or resection that is performed due to infections. methods: We used 10 mongrel dogs and performed resections of 8 cm diameter on their chest walls. In the reconstruction of these defects, in five of the subjects, we used two free rib grafts with periosteum to be resected from the contralateral side and in other five subjects, we used free rib grafts without periosteum. After this experimental study, sternal resection was performed in a 24-year-old man because of sternal osteomyelitis. First to obtain rib grafts with periosteum, partial resection was performed to 5th, 7th, and 9th ribs of the lateral left side. After, total sternal resection, end to end anastomosis was performed to the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th anterior ends of the ribs. RESULTS: Autogeneous rib grafts were found to be enough to provide chest wall stabilization. CONCLUSIONS: The contralateral autogeneous free rib grafts can successfully be used in reconstruction of wide chest wall defects. This method is found to be effective and sufficient to prevent infection, rejection and to provide stabilization. ( info)

7/195. Usefulness of procalcitonin in Pseudomonas burn wound sepsis model.

    Procalcitonin (PCT), a precursor of calcitonin, and endotoxin were determined in the burn wound sepsis model in which 21 Sprague-Dawley rats were scalded approximately 30% on their back. On day 2 post burn, the wounds were inoculated 1 x 10(8) colony-forming units of pseudomonas aeruginosa. On day 5 post burn P. aeruginosa was detected by blood culture in 10 of the 21 rats (47.6%). The mortality rate 7 days after burn was 90.5%. Significant correlations were observed between serum endotoxin levels and serum PCT levels on day 5 post burn (r = 0.860, p<0.001). It was suggested that endotoxin may induce the release of PCT and that measuring the levels of PCT may be useful in diagnosing burn wound sepsis. ( info)

8/195. Atopic dermatitis and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy: associated or coincidental disorders?

    Reports from jamaica have indicated that some patients with infective dermatitis or atopic dermatitis (AD) are seropositive for antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). We describe a 32-year-old Israeli woman with long-term AD and paresthesia in the distal parts of the extremities. Neurological examination revealed a positive Babinski's sign. HLA typing demonstrated that this patient has the common HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and infective dermatitis haplotype for DRB1* DQB1*. The presence of HTLV-1 was demonstrated with polymerase chain reaction; HTLV-1-antibodies were detected by the Western blot method and by inoculation of the patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells into F344 rats. This study confirms the presence of HTLV-1 antibodies and proviral genome in a patient with AD which later evolved into HAM/TSP. We cannot yet conclude whether these two diseases are associated or coincidental disorders. copyright (R) 2000 S.Karger AG, Basel ( info)

9/195. Can early postnatal closed head injury induce cortical dysplasia.

    PURPOSE: Increased availability of surgically resected epileptogenic tissues reveals often unsuspected cortical dysplasia (CD). There is some controversy about the ontogenic stages in which these occur. Although most take place during neuroblast proliferation and migration, there is some evidence for some CD occurring during postmigrational intrinsic cortical organization. It has been shown that various kinds of focal cortical manipulations in rats, if performed within 3-4 postnatal days, lead to the genesis of various cortical malformations including a four-layered microgyrus or an unlayered CD. It is not known whether such events also might occur in the human brain. methods: Two children sustained minor head trauma within 4 postnatal days and later developed intractable epilepsy, which was relieved by surgery. Neuropathologic analysis of the resected tissues revealed an unsuspected microdysplastic cortex immediately adjacent to a focal, modest meningeal fibrosis, presumably secondary to the old closed head trauma. RESULTS: The main histologic features were a disorganized, unlayered cortex; abnormal clusters of neurons, often with complex, randomly oriented proximal dendritic patterns with absent apical orientation; the presence of a number of heterotopic small and large neurons in the white matter; absence of inflammatory infiltrates, of hemosiderine, of reactive gliosis, or of an excessive number of blood vessels. The morphologic features in these surgical specimens suggest that these focal malformations occur because of a regional disorder of postmigrational intrinsic cortical remodeling. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical histories and the pathologic findings lend some support to the hypothesis that minor morbid events occuring in the immediate postnatal period may lead to microdysplasia in the human similar to those induced in rat pups. The animal model could be helpful to clarify the genesis of some cases of CD and of the epileptogenicity often manifesting later in life. ( info)

10/195. Therapy of iatrogenic subglottic stenosis: a steroid/antibiotic regimen.

    The authors have evaluated the efficacy of a medical regimen, consisting of systemic antibiotics and steroids, in the management of acute iatrogenic subglottic stenosis. The study consisted of the infliction of a standardized subglottic injury to three groups of five dogs: Group I animals were placed on prednisone 1 mg/kg/24 hours and potassium phenoxymethyl penicillin 50 mg/kg/24 hours from the day of the trauma. Group II were placed on a similar regimen from the eighth day after subglottic trauma. Group III received no medical therapy at all. Therapy was continued in treated Groups I and II for five weeks. At the end of the study the dogs were sacrificed and the final degree of subglottic stenosis evaluated, at which time the laryngotracheal complexes were submitted for pathological evaluation. A significant difference was found between the degree of stenosis attained in the three groups. The study suggests that the introduction of a steroid/antibiotic regimen has a beneficial effect in developing subglottic stenosis and that the timing of such therapy is of importance. ( info)
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