Cases reported "Disease Progression"

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1/16. Fas gene mutation in the progression of adult T cell leukemia.

    Fas antigen (Apo-1/CD95) is an apoptosis-signaling cell surface receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. adult T cell leukemia (ATL) cells express Fas antigen and show apoptosis after treatment with an anti-Fas monoclonal antibody. We established the ATL cell line KOB, which showed resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis, and found that KOB expressed two forms of Fas mRNA, the normal form and a truncated form. The truncated transcript lacked 20 base pairs at exon 9, resulting in a frame shift and the generation of a premature stop codon at amino acid 239. The same mutation was detected in primary ascitic cells and peripheral blood cells. The mutation was not detected in lymph node cells, however, although all of the primary ATL cells were of the same clonal origin. A retroviral-mediated gene transfer of the truncated Fas to jurkat cells rendered the cells resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis, suggesting a dominant negative interference mechanism. These results indicate that an ATL subclone acquires a Fas mutation in the lymph nodes, enabling the subclone to escape from apoptosis mediated by the Fas/Fas ligand system and proliferate in the body. mutation of the Fas gene may be one of the mechanisms underlying the progression of ATL.
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ranking = 1
keywords = apoptosis
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2/16. Histochemical investigation into the molecular mechanisms of malignant transformation in a benign glomus tumour.

    A glomangiosarcoma arose in a benign glomus tumour. The histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tumour were investigated. Apoptotic cells were identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL). The proportion of apoptotic cells was found to be low and TUNEL positive nuclei were present in the benign part of the tumour. Bcl-2 protein, an inhibitor of apoptosis, was strongly expressed in the glomangiosarcoma with only weak staining in the benign area. The proliferation index of the glomangiosarcoma was almost 10-fold higher than that of the benign glomus tumour. Numerous nuclei in the glomangiosarcoma were intensely stained for the tumour suppressor protein p53. The results of the this study may contribute to an understanding of the molecular basis of malignant transformation in benign glomus tumours.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = apoptosis
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3/16. Melanocytic nevus with pregnancy-related changes in size accompanied by apoptosis of nevus cells: a case report.

    Melanocytic nevi are commonly believed to undergo changes during pregnancy. This is probably related to hormonal influences; however, few studies have been able to prove it. We observed a case of a benign melanocytic nevus, which showed significant enlargement during pregnancy and immediate postpartum regression associated with increased apoptosis of nevus cells. Estrogen and progesterone receptors were not found in our case, although the clinical course still suggested a close association with hormonal influences.
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ranking = 1
keywords = apoptosis
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4/16. Analysis of p53 inactivation in a human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax transgenic mouse model.

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). The HTLV-1 Tax protein has been strongly linked to oncogenesis and is considered to be the transforming protein of this virus. A Tax transgenic mouse model was utilized to study the contribution of p53 inactivation to Tax-mediated tumorigenesis. These mice develop primary, peripheral tumors consisting of large granular lymphocytic (LGL) cells, which also infiltrate the lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen, liver, and lungs. Primary Tax-induced tumors and tumor-derived cell lines exhibited functional inactivation of the p53 apoptotic pathway; such tumors and tumor cell lines were resistant to an apoptosis-inducing stimulus. In contrast, p53 mutations in tumors were found to be associated with secondary organ infiltration. Three of four identified mutations inhibited transactivation and apoptosis induction activities in vitro. Furthermore, experiments which involved mating Tax transgenic mice with p53-deficient mice demonstrated minimal acceleration in initial tumor formation, but significantly accelerated disease progression and death in mice heterozygous for p53. These studies suggest that functional inactivation of p53 by HTLV-1 Tax, whether by mutation or another mechanism, is not critical for initial tumor formation, but contributes to late-stage tumor progression.
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ranking = 0.4
keywords = apoptosis
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5/16. Polyclonal expansion of CD3( )/CD4( )/CD56( ) large granular lymphocytes and autoimmunity associated with dysregulation of Fas/FasL apoptotic pathway.

    Evidence is accumulating regarding CD95/CD95 ligand (Fas/FasL) pathway dysregulation in clonal diseases of the lymphohaemopoietic lineages. According to these observations, it has been proposed that this defect may represent one of the mechanisms of tumour progression. In large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukaemia, dysregulated apoptosis may represent a key event in the development of malignancy and autoimmunity. This case report describes dysregulation of the Fas/FasL pathway in a chronic polyclonal expansion of CD3( ) LGLs associated with numerous serological immune abnormalities.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = apoptosis
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6/16. Progressive delayed-onset dystonia after cerebral anoxic insult in adults.

    The basal ganglia, especially the globi pallidi (GP), are highly vulnerable to generalized cerebral anoxia/hypoxia. We report on 2 new cases with delayed-onset generalized dystonia due to cerebral anoxia. The onset of dystonia in both of our patients was delayed by about 2 months. In both cases, the unusual feature was the progressive worsening and the spread of dystonia over many years after delayed onset. dystonia progressed for 16 years in Case 1 and for 4 years in Case 2. Furthermore, initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of Case 1 showed mild changes of the internal capsule sparing the basal ganglia. Years later, in line with clinical progression, the follow-up MRI scan showed isolated bilateral lesions involving the entire GP. MRI scans in Case 2 showed bilateral lesions of caudate and lentiform nuclei. There may be several mechanisms underlying delayed and progressive symptoms after time-limited brain anoxia. We hypothesize that anoxia-induced excitotoxicity resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent apoptosis may explain, at least partly, the delayed-onset and progressive extrapyramidal syndromes seen in these patients.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = apoptosis
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7/16. Upregulation of cystatin m during the progression of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma from primary tumor to metastasis.

    To identify metastasis-associated molecules in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), we recently compared mRNA expression profiles of cell lines derived from primary and metastatic lesions of OSCC using microarray technology. cystatin m, an endogenous cathepsin b inhibitor, was expressed 40-fold higher in the metastatic versus the primary tumor cell line. To show that different cystatin expression levels affect the cell lines' sensitivities to TNF-induced apoptosis by differentially regulating cathepsin b activity. The 686Tu and 686Ln cell lines were established from a 49-year-old male patient with an OSCC involving the posterior tongue and oro-pharynx (tumor stage T(3)N(3B)). RT-PCR, Western blots, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization all confirmed increased cystatin m expression in 686Ln compared to 686Tu cells, and in the parent archival tumors. TNF-alpha induced apoptosis was easily detected in 686Tu, but only marginally in 686Ln cells. Thus, we propose that elevated cystatin m expression aids metastasis by blocking intrinsic cathepsin b activity and rescuing tumor cells from TNF-induced apoptosis.
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ranking = 0.6
keywords = apoptosis
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8/16. The puzzle of sepsis: fitting the pieces of the inflammatory response with treatment.

    sepsis is a complex syndrome characterized by simultaneous activation of inflammation and coagulation in response to microbial insult. These events manifest as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)/sepsis symptoms through release of proinflammatory cytokines, procoagulants, and adhesion molecules from immune cells and/or damaged endothelium.Conventional treatments have focused on source control, antimicrobials, vasopressors, and fluid resuscitation; however, a new treatment paradigm exists: that of treating the host response to infection with adjunct therapies including early goal directed therapy, drotrecogin alfa (activated), and immunonutrition. The multimechanistic drotrecogin alfa (activated) has been shown to reduce mortality in the severely septic patient when combined with traditional treatment. Therapies targeting improved oxygen and blood flow and reduction of apoptosis and free radicals are under investigation. Early sepsis diagnosis through detection of pro calcitonin, C reactive protein, sublingual CO2, and genetic factors may be beneficial. Ultimately, intervention timing may be the most important factor in reducing severe sepsis mortality.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = apoptosis
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9/16. Congenital club foot with survival of motor neuron 1, telomeric (SMN1) gene deletion.

    A boy with nonreducible bilateral congenital talipes equinovarus had delayed milestones with early-onset generalized hypotonia and muscular weakness. The condition remained stable until he was 8 years old. A slow worsening of motor abilities, with myopathic signs, was observed thereafter. A homozygous deletion of exons 7 and 8 of the survival of motor neuron 1, telomeric (SMN1) gene was found, without neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene deletion, leading to the diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy. Independent ambulation was lost when he was 13 years old. The occurrence of congenital clubfoot with early onset of neurologic signs, but with a very slowly progressive course, has not been reported in spinal muscular atrophy until now.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = apoptosis
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10/16. Pathological features including apoptosis in subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy. Case report and review of the literature.

    Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy (SPAM) is a rare disorder that may gradually emerge in the first 1 to 3 weeks after a spinal cord injury and is unrelated to syrinx formation or mechanical instability. In addition to several theories that have been put forth to explain the origin of this syndrome, the authors propose a possible role for apoptosis in the causation and the progression of SPAM. They discuss the various theories that have been proposed thus far, to place the role of apoptosis in perspective and use their case as an illustration.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = apoptosis
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