Cases reported "Disease Progression"

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1/209. Cognitive deterioration associated with focal cortical dysplasia.

    Surgery for an area of focal cortical dysplasia in a critical region is reported in a right-handed female manifesting intractable focal epilepsy and verbal cognitive deterioration. She developed the first seizure at 2 years of age and was treated with phenytoin and zonisamide, with good control until 10 years of age. Although seizures did not occur at 9 years of age, she manifested dyscalculia, right-left disorientation, and finger agnosia, and N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed focal hypoperfusion in the left parietal lobe. At 11 years of age, she developed regular nocturnal seizures and gradually lost the ability to understand the meaning of sentences. Verbal IQ declined from 94 to 63, and the area of hypoperfusion detected by interictal N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine SPECT spread over the left parietotemporal lobes. magnetic resonance imaging revealed focal cortical dysplasia mainly in the left parietal lobe, and ictal technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimer SPECT images demonstrated an area of hyperperfusion around the focal cortical dysplasia, including the left precentral gyrus. Because of the overlap between the epileptogenic and functional cortex, the authors concluded that cortical resection, including focal cortical dysplasia, was inappropriate in this patient.
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2/209. Clinical, pathologic, and neurochemical studies of an unusual case of neuronal storage disease with lamellar cytoplasmic inclusions: a new genetic disorder?

    A child of first-cousin Puerto Rican parents had global developmental delay, failure to thrive, and hypotonia since early infancy. At 1 1/2 years of age, she developed clinical and electrophysiologic evidence of progressive motor and sensory neuropathy. At 2 1/2 years, she developed visual impairment and optic atrophy followed by gradual involvement of the 7th, 9th, 10th, and 12th cranial nerves. Uncontrollable myoclonic seizures began at 4 years and she died at 6 years of age. Motor nerve conduction velocities were initially normal and later became markedly slowed. Sensory distal latency responses were absent. Lysosomal enzyme activities in leukocytes and fibroblasts were normal. sural nerve and two muscle biopsies showed only nondiagnostic abnormalities. Electron microscopy of lymphocytes, skin, and fibroblasts showed cytoplasmic inclusions. light microscopy of frontal cortex biopsy showed neuronal storage material staining positively with Luxol fast blue, and electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic membranous bodies in neurons, suggesting an accumulation of a ganglioside. At autopsy, all organs were small but otherwise normal and without abnormal storage cells in the liver, spleen, or bone marrow. Anterior spinal nerve roots showed loss of large myelinated axons. The brain was small and atrophic; cortical neurons showed widespread accumulation of storage material, most marked in the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus. Subcortical white matter was gliotic with loss of axons and myelin sheaths. In cortical gray matter there was a 35% elevation of total gangliosides, with a 16-fold increase in GM3, a three- to four-fold increase in GM2 gangliosides, and a 15-fold elevation of lactosyl ceramide. GM3 sialidase activity was normal in gray matter at 3.1 nmols/mg protein per hour and lactosyl ceraminidase I and II activities were 70% to 80% of normal. In white matter, total myelin was reduced by 50% but its composition was normal. Phospholipid distribution and sphingomyelin content were normal in gray matter, white matter, and in the liver. These biochemical findings were interpreted as nonspecific abnormalities. The nature of the neuronal storage substance remains to be determined.
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keywords = cortex, visual
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3/209. Progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome as an early manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome is a recently recognized variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy, developing in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other conditions causing immune compromise. We report a case in which the diagnosis of retinal necrosis syndrome was made before the diagnosis of AIDS was confirmed. A 41-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of blurred vision in his left eye. Ophthalmologic examination revealed extensive retinal necrosis with total retinal detachment in his left eye and multifocal deep retinal lesions scattered in the posterior fundus as well as in the peripheral retina in his right eye. The serologic test for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) was positive. Despite intravenous acyclovir treatment for 1 week, the lesions in the right eye showed rapid progression. High doses of intravitreal ganciclovir were then given in addition to intravenous acyclovir. After combined treatment for 1 month, the lesions became quiescent and the visual acuity improved to 20/30. Although the patient soon developed full-blown AIDS, the vision in his right eye remained undisturbed. physicians should suspect progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome in any patient with rapidly progressive necrotizing retinopathy and test the patient for hiv infection. Aggressive combined antiviral agent therapy should be considered to save vision.
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keywords = visual
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4/209. Immune-mediated retinopathy in a patient with stiff-man syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: Stiff-man syndrome is a rare neurological disorder characterised by rigidity and violent spasms of the body musculature. In the majority of patients, presence of antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme synthesizing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), suggests an autoimmune attack against GABA-ergic inhibitory neurons. We report a 32-year-old patient with stiff-man syndrome and anti-GAD antibodies who developed subacute progressive loss of vision in the right eye, and in the left eye 18 months thereafter. methods: Ophthalmological work-up included electro-retinogram (ERG), visual evoked potentials (VEP) and fluorescein angiography. Antiretinal antibodies were investigated using an indirect immunofluorescence technique on frozen sections of macaque retina with patients serum and FITC-conjugated goat antihuman immunoglobulin. Staining with monoclonal anti-GAD65 antibodies and with serum from three healthy normals served as controls. RESULTS: visual acuity of both eyes decreased to 0.16 within a span of 6 weeks. Perimetry revealed a central scotoma in the visual field of both eyes. VEP and flash ERG were progressively disturbed on the right eye. On the left eye, initially only pattern ERG and photopic responses were abnormal. Follow-up recordings revealed widespread pathology of photopic single and flicker responses. Immunofluorescence revealed strong reactivity of the inner plexiform layer and to a lesser extent staining of the outer plexiform layer at dilutions of 1:1000 with patients serum. The same retinal staining pattern was obtained with monoclonal anti-GAD65 antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest autoimmune retinopathy, mediated by anti-GAD65 autoantibodies as the underlying cause of visual loss.
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keywords = visual
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5/209. White matter hyperintensities on MRI in a patient with corticobasal degeneration.

    We describe a patient who presented with the clinicopathological features of corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Over the course of 8 years, the patient developed myoclonus, dystonia, and supranuclear gaze palsy associated with an akinetic-rigid syndrome. To our knowledge, no previous report of a patient with CBD has described clear-cut regional white matter changes as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. In our patient, a T2-weighted MR image of the brain showed focal atrophy of the bilateral frontal cortex and asymmetric regional hyperintensities of the subjacent white matter. These signal changes seemed to primarily reflect the progression of neuronal degeneration, especially the demyelination secondary to axonal loss or change.
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6/209. early diagnosis of the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia: how sensitive are standard neuroimaging and neuropsychologic tests?

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of structural (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) and functional (single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT]) imaging and neuropsychologic evaluation in the early diagnosis of frontal variant frontotemporal dementia (fvFTD). BACKGROUND: Current criteria for FTD stress the need for neuropsychologic and functional neuroimaging abnormalities, yet caregivers report lengthy histories of behavioral change. It is not known when, in the course of the disease, these investigations become abnormal, because few longitudinal studies have been reported. METHOD: Longitudinal study of two patients with serial neuropsychologic evaluation and MRI and HMPAO-SPECT scanning. RESULTS: Both patients, men aged 49 and 50, had major changes in personality, behavior, and social conduct that progressed over 5 to 6 years in a way that conformed to the clinical picture of fvFTD. There was remarkably little abnormality on neuropsychologic testing, and MRI and HMPAO-SPECT findings initially were normal. Over time, however, abnormalities on SPECT, frontal atrophy on MRI, or a neuropsychologic profile more typical of fvFTD developed in both patients. CONCLUSIONS: Standard neuropsychologic tests and conventional brain imaging techniques (MRI and SPECT) may not be sensitive to the early changes in fvFTD that occur in the ventromedial frontal cortex, and better methods of accurate early detection are required. These findings are relevant to the diagnostic criteria for FTD.
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7/209. Spontaneous disappearance of temporo-frontal arachnoid cyst in a child.

    We report a child with a large temporo-frontal arachnoid cyst which resolved spontaneously. There was no history of a head injury. The patient was a boy aged 1.6 years. Though a large head was pointed out ( 2SD), no therapeutic intervention was made because the relationship of the head circumference and the cyst was not established. No change in cyst size was visualized on the follow-up CTs at the age of 2.5 years and 6 years. At the age of 7 years, the arachnoid cyst had completely disappeared on CT. In order not to overlook a minute change in cyst size, the volumetry of the cyst and the intracranial cavity was performed, using the Photoshop, Macintosh. Both the cyst volume and the volume ratio of the cyst to the intracranial cavity slightly decreased and then increased. It is speculated that the cyst spontaneously ruptured by factors such as extreme breath holding and crying on the presence of the higher intracystic tension which might become a factor to accelerate spontaneous rupture of the cyst. Since a number of paediatric cases of symptomatic arachnoid cysts in need of surgical intervention has been larger than that of adult cases, we can speculate that a large arachnoid cyst might spontaneously resolve more frequently than we had expected. This case demonstrates that the surgical treatment of asymptomatic arachnoid cyst in the middle cranial fossa is not necessarily indicated in children.
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keywords = visual
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8/209. Sorsby's fundus dystrophy: a case report of 24 years follow-up with electrodiagnostic tests and indocyanine green angiography.

    PURPOSE: Five families with dominantly inherited macular dystrophy were originally described by Sorsby et al. in 1949. Key features include early bilateral central visual loss secondary to either choroidal neovascularisation or central geographical atrophy and late progressive chorioretinal atrophy. We report a member of one of the original families who has been studied with a series of investigations over a long time, providing important information on differences in the phenotype and natural history of a rare genetically determined macular dystrophy. methods: The patient has been followed up for the last 24 years, from asymptomatic to full manifestation of Sorsby's fundus dystrophy. Series of fundus photographs, colour vision, dark adaptation and electrodiagnostic tests were performed. The disease was also studied with fundus fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography. RESULTS: Unlike her other family members, who were reported in other studies as all having rapid loss of vision secondary to disciform macular disease, our patient has a unique clinical course in that she has a progressive bilateral central and generalised chorioretinal atrophy with a well-preserved minute central island of fovea. Nyctalopia was her early and only symptom. There was evidence of central scotoma, tritanopia and mild abnormality in dark adaptation. Rod function was affected earlier and to a larger degree than cone function. CONCLUSIONS: The overall features suggest phenotypic variability within a family in this autosomal dominant macular dystrophy. The findings from indocyanine green angiography and a consecutive series of electrodiagnostic tests in this condition support the theory of partial choroidal hypoperfusion and an interesting progressive rod-cone dystrophy as part of the pathophysiology.
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keywords = visual
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9/209. blindness from bad bones.

    Progressive visual loss is the most common neurologic finding in osteopetrosis. Several mechanisms may explain this phenomenon, including compression of the optic nerves caused by bony overgrowth of the optic canals and retinal degeneration. We report a child with osteopetrosis and progressive visual loss, even though patent optic canals were demonstrated by computed tomography and digital holography. This patient's visual loss was caused by increased intracranial pressure secondary, to obstruction of cerebral venous outflow at the jugular foramen. This case points to the importance of a full evaluation of the skull base foramina in the diagnostic workup of visual loss in patients with osteopetrosis.
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ranking = 2.9304981938242
keywords = visual
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10/209. Bilateral contemporaneous posteroventral pallidotomy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease: neuropsychological and neurological side effects. Report of four cases and review of the literature.

    The authors report the underestimated cognitive, mood, and behavioral complications in patients who have undergone bilateral contemporaneous pallidotomy, as seen in their early experience with functional neurosurgery for Parkinson's disease (PD) that is accompanied by severe motor fluctuations before pallidal stimulation. Four patients, not suffering from dementia, with advanced (Hoehn and Yahr Stages III-IV), medically untreatable PD featuring severe "on-off" fluctuations underwent bilateral contemporaneous posteroventral pallidotomy (PVP). All patients were evaluated according to the Core Assessment Program for Intracerebral Transplantations (CAPIT) protocol without positron emission tomography scans but with additional neuropsychological cognitive, mood, and behavior testing. For the first 3 to 6 months postoperatively, all patients showed a mean improvement of motor scores on the Unified Parkinson's disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), in the best "on" (21%) and worst "off" (40%) UPDRS III motor subscale, a mean 30% improvement in the UPDRS II activities of daily living (ADL) subscore, and 60% on the UPDRS IV complications of treatment subscale. Dyskinesia disappeared almost completely, and the mean daily duration of the off time was reduced by an average of 60%. Despite these good results in the CAPIT scores, one patient experienced a partially regressive corticobulbar syndrome with dysphagia, dysarthria, and increased drooling. No emotional lability was found in this patient, but he did demonstrate severe bilateral postoperative pretarsal blepharospasm (apraxia of eyelid opening), which interfered with walking and which required treatment with high-dose subcutaneous injections of botulinum toxin. No patient showed visual field defects or hemiparesis, but postoperative depression, changes in personality, behavior, and executive functions were seen in two individuals. Postoperative abulia was reported by the family of one patient, who lost his preoperative aggressiveness and drive in terms of ADL, speech, business, family life, and hobbies, and became more sleepy and fatigued. One patient reported postoperative mental automatisms, such as compulsive mental counting, and circular thoughts and reasoning during off phases; postoperative depression was found in two patients. However, none of the patients demonstrated these symptoms during intraoperative microelectrode stimulation. These findings are compatible with previous reports on bilateral pallidal lesions. A progressive lowering of UPDRS subscores was seen after 12 months, consistent with the progression of the disease. Bilateral simultaneous pallidotomy may be followed by emotional, behavioral, and cognitive deficits such as depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and loss of psychic autoactivation-abulia, as well as disabling corticobulbar dysfunction and apraxia of eyelid opening, in addition to previously described motor and visual field deficits, which make this surgery undesirable even though significant improvement in motor deficits can be achieved.
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keywords = visual
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